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Table 1 Characteristics in the primary and validation datasets

From: Deep learning-based predictive biomarker of pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy from histological images in breast cancer

Factors Primary dataset P Validation dataset P
pCR (n  =  81) Non-pCR (n  =  352) pCR (n  =  21) Non-pCR (n  =  86)
Age at diagnosis (%)
 < 50 46 (56.8) 209 (59.4) 0.708 11 (52.4) 48 (55.8) 0.811
 ≥ 50 35 (43.2) 143 (40.6) 10 (47.6) 38 (44.2)
Menopausal status (%)
 Premenopausal 45 (55.6) 221 (62.8) 0.255 10 (47.6) 49 (56.9) 0.472
 Postmenopausal 36 (44.4) 131 (37.2) 11 (52.4) 37 (43.1)
T stage (%)
 T1–T2 39 (48.1) 161 (45.7) 0.712 11 (52.4) 39 (45.3) 0.630
 T3–T4 42 (51.9) 191 (54.3) 10 (47.6) 47 (54.7)
N stage (%)
 N0 8 (9.9) 32 (9.1) 1.000 0 (0.0) 5 (5.8) 1.000
 N1–N3 73 (90.1) 320 (90.9) 21 (100.0) 81 (94.2)
ER status (%)
 Positive 26 (32.1) 243 (69.0) < 0.001 4 (19.0) 66 (76.7) < 0.001
 Negative 55 (67.9) 109 (31.0) 17 (81.0) 20 (23.3)
PR status (%)
 Positive 27 (33.3) 231 (65.6) < 0.001 7 (33.3) 59 (68.6) 0.005
 Negative 54 (66.7) 121 (34.4) 14(66.7) 27 (31.4)
HER2 status (%)
 Positive 44 (54.3) 75 (21.3) < 0.001 15 (71.4) 17 (19.8) < 0.001
 Negative 37 (45.7) 277 (78.7) 6 (28.6) 69 (80.2)
Subtype (%)
 HR + /HER2 − 16 (19.8) 223 (63.4) < 0.001 3 (14.3) 59 (68.6) < 0.001
 HR + /HER2 +  20 (24.7) 40 (11.4) 5 (23.8) 11 (12.8)
 HR −/HER2 − 21 (25.9) 54 (15.3) 3 (14.3) 10 (11.6)
 HR −/HER2 +  24 (29.6) 35 (9.9) 10 (47.6) 6 (7.0)
Ki-67 index (%)
 ≥ 20% 76 (93.8) 296 (84.1) 0.021 20 (95.2) 70 (81.4) 0.184
 < 20% 5 (6.2) 56 (15.9) 1 (4.8) 16 (18.6)
Nuclear grade (%)
 1 or 2 40 (49.4) 252 (71.6) 0.001 11 (52.4) 59 (68.6) 0.202
 3 41 (51.6) 100 (28.4) 10 (47.6) 27 (31.4)
sTILs (%)
 Low 31 (38.3) 207 (58.8) 0.001 4 (19.0) 57 (66.3) 0.001
 Moderate 44 (54.3) 136 (38.6) 14 (66.7) 26 (30.2)
 High 6 (7.4) 9 (2.6) 3 (14.3) 3 (3.5)
Necrosis (%)
 Yes 22 (27.2) 67 (19.0) 0.126 6 (28.6) 13 (14.9) 0.200
 No 59 (72.8) 285 (81.0) 15 (71.4) 74 (85.1)
  1. Bold indicates statistical significance (P  <  0.05)
  2. ER estrogen receptor; PR progesterone receptor; HER2 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; HR hormone receptor; sTILs stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes; pCR pathological complete response