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Table 1 Baseline factors pertinent to M2H domain identification and approach

From: Move to health-a holistic approach to the management of chronic low back pain: an intervention and implementation protocol developed for a pragmatic clinical trial

Variable Measures Interpretation for move to health
Body mass index Height and weight (kg/m2) [87] Can suggest an opportunity to improve health through domains of nutrition and/or activity
 < 18.5 = underweight; 25–29.9 = overweight; ≥ 30 = obese
Tobacco use History of tobacco use Can suggest an opportunity to improve health through the domain of personal development in the intrinsic well-being category
Physical activity Godin Leisure-Time Questionnaire [88] Can suggest an opportunity to improve health through the domain of activity
24 + : Active; 14–23: moderately active; < 14: insufficiently active/sedentary
PROMIS health domains
Sleep disturbance [89]
Depression [90, 91]
Anxiety [92]
Pain interference [93]
PROMIS short forms or computer-adapted tests [92] PROMIS domains are provided as T-scores. For the following domains scores from 55.0 to 59.0 suggest a mild concern, 60.0–69.0 suggest a moderate concern, and scores ≥ 70 suggest a severe concern
Suggests an opportunity to improve health through the domain of sleep
Both depression and anxiety may suggest opportunities to improve health in the domains of intrinsic or extrinsic well-being
Examines impact of pain on mood, stress, sleep and activity, suggests opportunities to improve health in the intrinsic or extrinsic well-being categories, sleep or activity
Physical function PROMIS physical function [92, 94] Suggests opportunity to improve health through the domain of activity
Pain impact PEG-3 [93] or Defense and Veterans Pain Rating Scale [95] Pain impact combines measures of pain intensity and pain interference. suggests opportunities to improve health in the intrinsic or extrinsic well-being categories, sleep or activity
Both the PEG-3 and DVPRS are scored from 0–10 with higher numbers indicating greater pain impact
Prognosis Keele STarT Back Screening Tool [96] Risk level provides prognosis of poor clinical outcomes and suggests opportunities to improve health in the domains of emotional (intrinsic) well-being and activity
Total score ≤ 3 points = low risk; total score ≥ 4 points (≤ 3 points on Qs 5–9 = medium risk; 4 + points on Qs 5–9 = high risk)
Health-related quality of life EuroQol-5D-5L [97, 98] Suggests opportunity to improve health in the domain of emotional, spiritual, personal development, family/social, or surroundings in the intrinsic or extrinsic well-being categories
Overall health is self-reported 0 (Worst) to 100 (Best); patients report dimension-specific difficulties with mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression from 1 (no problems) to 5 (unable to or extreme problems)
  1. PROMIS patient-reported outcomes information system, PEG-3 pain average, enjoyment of life, and general activity, EuroQol european quality of life 5 dimension, 5 level scale