Skip to main content

Table 2 Differences in study parameters of GEP-NET, according to chronotype categories

From: Chronotype: what role in the context of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors?

Parameters Morning type
n = 53, 48.6%
Neither type
n = 19, 17.4%
Evening type
n = 37, 33.9%
*p-value
Gender
 Males (n, %) 25, 47.2% 10, 52,6% 18, 48.6% χ2 = 0.17,
p = 0.919
 Females (n, %) 28, 52.8% 9, 47.4% 19, 51.4%
Age (years) 54.0 ± 16.6 62.4 ± 12.2 58.7 ± 16.1 0.110
Clinical characteristics
 Smoking (No) 40, 75.5% 14, 73.7% 18, 48.6% χ2 = 7.59, p = 0.023
 Physical activity (No) 24, 45.3% 7, 36.8% 29, 78.4% χ2 = 12.73, p = 0.002
Anthropometric measurement
 BMI (kg/m2) 25.4 ± 3.9 27.6 ± 4.5 30.5 ± 6.1 < 0.001
 Normal weight (n, %) 26, 49.1% 5, 26.3% 7, 18.9% χ2 = 9.46, p = 0.009
 Overweight (n, %) 18, 34.0% 8, 42.1% 10, 27.0% χ2 = 1.33, p = 0.514
 Grade I obesity (n, %) 9, 17.0 5, 26.3% 15, 40.5% χ2 = 6.19, p = 0.045
 Grade II obesity (n, %) 0,0% 1, 5.3% 4, 10.8% χ2 = 5.84, p = 0.050
 Grade III obesity (n, %) 0,0% 0, 0% 1, 2.7% χ2 = 1.96, p = 0.375
 WC (cm) 87.6 ± 13.2 94.0 ± 13.3 103.0 ± 12.9 < 0.001
Blood pressure
 SBP (mmHg) 119.2 ± 8.9 124.7 ± 13.8 133.9 ± 9.4 < 0.001
 DBP (mmHg) 73.1 ± 6.7 77.1 ± 7.9 81.8 ± 6.1 < 0.001
Metabolic profile
 Glycemia levels (mg/dL) 103.5 ± 16.0 101.4 ± 14.3 118.2 ± 9.3 < 0.001
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 178.3 ± 32.7 180.3 ± 38.6 214.3 ± 45.7 < 0.001
 Triglycerides (mg/dL) 110.8 ± 45.2 108.3 ± 40.1 159.9 ± 50.3 < 0.001
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 103.9 ± 28.5 107.4 ± 33.1 145.7 ± 44.1 < 0.001
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 52.2 ± 14.5 51.3 ± 16.1 36.6 ± 10.4 < 0.001
MetS
 MetS (number parameter) 0.96 ± 0.8 1.63 ± 0.6 3.83 ± 0.8 <0.001
 Mets presence 3, 5.7% 19, 100.0% 37, 100.0% χ2 = 30.79, p<0.001
Ki67 index (%) 2.5 ± 1.8 3.5 ± 4.7 6.1 ± 5.1 <0.001
  1. GEP-NET: Gastroenteropancreatic tumors; G: grading; BMI: body mass index; WC: waist circumference; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; HDL: high-density lipoprotein; LDL: low-density lipoprotein; MetS: metabolic syndrome
  2. *A p-value in bold type denotes a significant difference (p < 0.05)