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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients with sepsis following ICU admission

From: Development and validation of a score to predict mortality in ICU patients with sepsis: a multicenter retrospective study

Variables Midwest development cohort
(n = 4236); n (%)
West validation cohort
(n = 3185)
South validation cohort
(n = 3333)
Wenzhou validation cohort
(n = 1878)
n (%) P value* n (%) P value* n (%) P value*
Demographics and social history        
 Age, median (IQR, years) 69 (57, 80) 68 (56, 79) 0.027 69 (58, 80) 0.939 69 (57.25, 80) 0.949
 Male sex, n (%) 2252 (53) 1650 (52) 0.26 1716 (52) 0.164 1020 (54) 0.422
 Race, n (%)     < 0.001    < 0.001   
 African American 411 (10) 107 (3)   629 (19)    
 Asian 53 (1) 82 (3)   44 (1)    
 Caucasian 3426 (81) 2495 (78)   2277 (68)    
 Hispanic 54 (1) 183 (6)   219 (7)    
 Native American 23 (1) 79 (2)   13 (0)    
 Other/unknown 269 (6) 239 (8)   151 (5)    
 Height, median (IQR, cm) 170 (161.8, 177.8) 170 (162, 177.8) 0.481 167.6 (160, 177.8) 0.035 170 (160, 177.8) 0.796
 Weight, median (IQR) 77.1 (63.5, 95) 77.6 (64.4, 96.5) 0.244 77 (63.5, 94.2) 0.697 76.9 (63.4, 93.5) 0.207
 Infection site, n (%)    0.014    < 0.001    < 0.001
 Pulmonary 1745 (41) 1212 (38)   929 (28)   725 (39)  
 Renal/UTI 985 (23) 770 (24)   862 (26)   389 (21)  
 Cutaneous/soft tissue 337 (8) 280 (9)   231 (7)   140 (7)  
 GI 544 (13) 468 (15)   384 (12)   250 (13)  
 Gynecologic 9 (0) 14 (0)   12 (0)   2 (0)  
 Other 173 (4) 111 (3)   420 (13)   137 (7)  
 Unknown 443 (10) 330 (10)   495 (15)   235 (13)  
 Ventilation, n (%) 1411 (33) 1142 (36) 0.024 1110 (33) 1 643 (34) 0.497
Severity score        
 SOFA, median (IQR) 5 (3, 7) 5 (3, 7)  < 0.001 5 (3, 7) 0.004 5 (3, 7) 0.001
 APACHE IV, median (IQR, Kg) 67 (53, 84) 71 (56, 90)  < 0.001 71 (57, 89)  < 0.001 71 (55, 90.75)  < 0.001
Vital signs        
 Temperature, median (IQR) 37.4 (36.9, 38.1) 37.3 (36.9, 38.1) 0.787 37.3 (36.9, 38.1) 0.140 37.4 (36.9, 38.1) 0.673
 Heart rate, median (IQR) 109 (94, 125) 112 (97, 128)  < 0.001 110 (96, 126) 0.020 111 (96, 127) 0.004
 Respiratory rate, median (IQR) 29 (24, 35) 29 (25, 35) 0.004 29 (24, 35) 0.011 29 (24, 35) 0.036
 Systolic pressure, median (IQR) 85 (75, 96) 84 (73, 95)  < 0.001 83 (72, 95)  < 0.001 84 (74, 96) 0.012
 Diastolic pressure, median (IQR) 45 (37, 52) 44 (36, 52) 0.018 44 (36, 51) 0.006 44 (36, 52) 0.093
 MAP, median (IQR, mmHg) 60 (52, 68) 59 (51, 67) 0.003 59 (51, 66)  < 0.001 59 (51, 67) 0.059
 SpO2, median (IQR) 92 (89, 95) 92 (87, 95)  < 0.001 92 (88, 95) 0.112 92 (88, 95) 0.195
Laboratory tests        
 Albumin, median (IQR) 2.6 (2.1, 3) 2.5 (2.1, 3) 0.008 2.5 (2.1, 3) 0.039 2.5 (2.1, 3) 0.028
 Bicarbonate, median (IQR) 21 (17, 24) 20 (17, 24)  < 0.001 20 (17, 24)  < 0.001 20 (16.1, 23)  < 0.001
 Bilirubin, median (IQR) 0.8 (0.5, 1.4) 0.8 (0.5, 1.5) 0.060 0.8 (0.5, 1.4) 0.658 0.8 (0.5, 1.4) 0.442
 Creatinine, median (IQR) 1.67 (1.1, 2.81) 1.73 (1.11, 2.91) 0.143 1.7 (1.1, 2.83) 0.438 1.77 (1.11, 2.95) 0.114
 Glucose, median (IQR) 107 (89, 136) 108 (88, 137) 0.771 108 (88, 136) 0.523 107 (88, 135) 0.283
 Hematocrit, median (IQR) 31 (26.4, 35.5) 30.7 (26.1, 35.2) 0.051 30.8 (26, 35.4) 0.070 30.5 (26.6, 35.48) 0.381
 Hemoglobin, median (IQR) 10.1 (8.6, 11.7) 10 (8.4, 11.6) 0.038 10 (8.4, 11.6) 0.033 10 (8.6, 11.7) 0.509
 Lactate, median (IQR) 2.4 (1.5, 4.2) 2.6 (1.6, 4.6)  < 0.001 2.6 (1.6, 4.4)  < 0.001 2.7 (1.6, 4.68)  < 0.001
 Platelet, median (IQR) 157 (106, 226) 157 (105, 222) 0.489 160 (102, 224) 0.419 155 (105, 231) 0.915
 BUN, median (IQR) 33 (21, 52) 34 (22, 53) 0.122 34 (22, 53) 0.054 35 (22, 56) 0.002
 WBC, median (IQR) 15.62 (10.4, 21.91) 15.8 (10.7, 22.5) 0.121 16 (10.6, 22.8) 0.063 15.8 (10.9, 22.3) 0.103
 ALT, median (IQR) 28 (18, 56) 30 (18, 60) 0.141 30 (18, 59) 0.072 30 (18, 58) 0.165
Morbidities        
 Dialysis, n (%) 205 (5) 168 (5) 0.426 170 (5) 0.641 91 (5) 1
 AIDS, n (%) 10 (0) 17 (1) 0.059 9 (0) 0.951 2 (0) 0.365
 Hepatic failure, n (%) 75 (2) 80 (3) 0.033 77 (2) 0.114 56 (3) 0.003
 Lymphoma, n (%) 34 (1) 30 (1) 0.606 31 (1) 0.638 24 (1) 0.104
 Metastatic cancer, (%) 138 (3) 114 (4) 0.489 119 (4) 0.496 1806(96) 0.287
 Leukemia, n (%) 69 (2) 59 (2) 0.521 73 (2) 0.089 28 (1) 0.744
 Immunosuppression, n (%) 213 (5) 192 (6) 0.068 200 (6) 0.072 103 (5) 0.496
 Cirrhosis, n (%) 123 (3) 107 (3) 0.292 113 (3) 0.253 58 (3) 0.756
Outcome        
 ICU mortality, n (%) 500 (12) 471 (15)  < 0.001 467 (14) 0.005 268 (14) 0.008
 Hospital mortality, n (%) 808 (19) 688 (22) 0.008 724 (22) 0.005 398 (21) 0.059
 Length of ICU stay, median (IQR) 53 (29, 101) 55 (29, 113) 0.172 53 (28, 105) 0.95 54 (28, 100.75) 0.736
  1. Continuous data are presented as median (interquartile range), whereas categorical data are presented as frequency (percentage)
  2. *p values compare the development cohort to each of the three validation cohorts using Wilcoxon Mann–Whitney test or exact Fisher test depending on whether the variable is continuous or categorical