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Table 9 Identified scalp stimulation targets for ADHD

From: Potential scalp stimulation targets for mental disorders: evidence from neuroimaging studies

Cluster ID Cluster size Peak T Peak coordinates Brain regions 10–20 EEG system locations Acupoint locations Functions
x y z
ADHD-1 188 6.98 − 48 10 32 L IFG/dlPFC/mPFC/PreCG 1 cm posterior and inferior to F3 0.6 cun posterior and superior to GB 4 Planning complex, coordinated movements
ADHD-2 205 8.62 − 36 22 − 8 L IFG/OrbIFG 1 cm posterior and inferior to F7 0.6 cun inferior to GB 5 Language processing and comprehension, emotional recognition
ADHD-3 120 6.98 − 40 − 56 46 L IPL/PCu/AG P3 GB 18 Sentence generation, arithmetic learning, abstract coding of numerical magnitude, spatial focusing of attention, performing verbal creative tasks, processing a sequence of actions
ADHD-4 236 8.62 − 2 20 42 L MedFG/SupMFG/mPFC Midpoint of Fz and Cz 0.1 cun posterior to GV 22 Motor learning/imagery/control, executive control of behavior, language processing, working memory, visuospatial and visuomotor attention, pain anticipation
ADHD-5 81 6.98 36 26 40 R MFG/dlPFC/mPFC 1 cm superior to F4 0.3 cun inferior to BL 5 Planning complex movements
ADHD-6 168 6.98 36 24 8 R IFG/TriIFG 1 cm posterior to F8 Midpoint of GB 5 and GB 6 Semantic tasks (decision/generation/retrieval/working memory processes)
ADHD-7 99 6.15 58 − 46 30 R IPL/SMG 2 cm anterior and inferior to P4 0.6 cun anterior and inferior to GB 18 Reading, spatial focusing of attention, visuospatial processing
ADHD-8 105 6.98 − 2 50 − 10 L MedFG/OrbMFG Midpoint of Fp1 and Fp2 0.6 cun anterior to GV 24 Working memory, episodic memory, and multiple-task coordination
ADHD-9 82 6.15 − 28 − 54 42 L SPL/IPL/PCu 1 cm lateral to P3 0.3 cun medial and superior to GB 9 Sentence generation, arithmetic learning, abstract coding of numerical magnitude, spatial focusing of attention, performing verbal creative tasks, executive control of behavior
  1. L, left; R, right; MFG, middle frontal gyrus; IFG, inferior frontal gyrus; OrbIFG, orbital inferior frontal gyrus; SupMFG, superior medial frontal gyrus; MedFG, medial frontal gyrus; OrbMFG, orbital medial frontal gyrus; TriIFG, triangular inferior frontal gyrus; dlPFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; mPFC, medial prefrontal cortex; SPL, superior parietal lobule; IPL, inferior parietal lobule; SMG, supramarginal gyrus; AG, angular gyrus; PreCG, precentral gyrus; PCu, precuneus; cm, centimeter; cun, Chinese inches, 1 cun is about 3.33 cm; GV 22, Xinhui; GV 24, Shenting; GB 4, Hanyan; GB 5, Xuanlu; GB 6, Xuanli; GB 9, Tianchong; GB 18, Chengling; BL 5, Wuchu