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Table 15 Identified scalp stimulation targets for PTSD

From: Potential scalp stimulation targets for mental disorders: evidence from neuroimaging studies

Cluster ID Cluster size Peak T Peak coordinates Brain regions 10–20 EEG
system locations
Acupoint
locations
Functions
x y z
PTSD-1 95 6.20 − 42 28 14 L IFG/TriIFG/MFG 2 cm posterior to Fp1 0.3 cun anterior and inferior to GB 4 Sustaining attention and managing working memory, regulate self-control
PTSD-2 57 6.20 − 44 40 − 6 L MFG/OrbIFG 2 cm anterior and inferior to F7 1 cun anterior and inferior to GB 5 Language processing and comprehension, emotional recognition (fear, disgust, and anger)
PTSD-3 169 8.26 − 46 20 − 4 L IFG/OrbIFG/TriIFG 1 cm posterior and inferior to F7 0.3 cun anterior and inferior to GB 6 Language processing and comprehension, emotional recognition (fear, disgust, and anger)
PTSD-4 184 8.26 − 40 − 54 44 L IPL/SPL/PCu/AG P3 GB 18 Sentence generation, reading, calculation, arithmetic learning, abstract coding of numerical magnitude, spatial focusing of attention, performing verbal creative tasks, theory of mind, executive control of behavior, processing a sequence of actions
PTSD-5 345 8.26 − 2 20 42 L SMA/MedFG/SupMFG Midpoint of Fz and Cz 0.3 cun posterior to GV 22 Motor learning/imagery/control, executive control of behavior, speech motor programming, language processing, working memory, visuospatial and visuomotor attention, inductive reasoning, pain anticipation
PTSD-6 60 7.23 34 10 56 R MFG/SFG 2 cm anterior and lateral to Cz 0.1 cun medial to GB 16 Motor sequencing/planning/learning/imagery, language processing, working memory, episodic long-term memory, visuospatial attention, visuomotor attention, executive control of behavior
PTSD-7 273 8.26 50 22 − 10 R IFG/OrbIFG/TriIFG/OperIFG 1 cm posterior and inferior to F8 0.3 cun anterior and inferior to GB 6 Language processing and comprehension, emotional recognition (fear, disgust, and anger)
PTSD-8 98 7.23 44 − 42 48 R IPL/SMG/PoCG 2 cm anterior and superior to P4 Midpoint of GB 17 and GB 18 Semantic processing, retrieval of unpleasant experiences, working memory, executive control of behavior, visuomotor transformation/motor planning, somatosensory spatial discrimination, social perception and empathy, emotions vs. Self-reflections in decision-making
  1. L, left; R, right; SFG, superior frontal gyrus; MFG, middle frontal gyrus; IFG, inferior frontal gyrus; OrbIFG, orbital inferior frontal gyrus; TriIFG, triangular inferior frontal gyrus; OperIFG, opercular inferior frontal gyrus; SupMFG, superior medial frontal gyrus; MedFG, medial frontal gyrus; SPL, superior parietal lobule; IPL, inferior parietal lobule; SMG, supramarginal gyrus; AG, angular gyrus; PoCG, postcentral gyrus; PCu, precuneus; SMA, supplementary motor area; cm, centimeter; cun, Chinese inches, 1 cun is about 3.33 cm; GB 4, Hanyan; GB 5, Xuanlu; GB 6, Xuanli; GB 16, Muchuang; GB 17, Zhengying; GB 18, Chengling; GV 22, Xinhui