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Table 12 Identified scalp stimulation targets for bipolar disorder

From: Potential scalp stimulation targets for mental disorders: evidence from neuroimaging studies

Cluster ID Cluster size Peak T Peak coordinates Brain regions 10–20 EEG system locations Acupoint locations Functions
x y z
BD-1 55 7.29 − 40 18 − 20 L IFG/OrbIFG/STP 2 cm inferior to F7 1 cun anterior and inferior to GB 6 Attribution of intentions/mental states to others, self/other distinction, experiencing emotional state, response to threat/fearful stimulus, multimodal memory retrieval, semantic processing, humor comprehension, inferential reasoning
BD-2 37 7.29 − 58 − 14 6 L STG 0.5 cm anterior and superior to T3 0.1 cun anterior and superior to GB 7 Performing basic and higher functions in hearing, language switching
BD-3 72 8.02 − 30 − 58 44 L IPL/SPL 0.5 cm anterior and superior to P3 0.1 cun anterior and superior to GB 18 Sentence generation, reading, calculation, arithmetic learning, performing verbal creative tasks, executive control of behavior
BD-4 87 8.74 46 4 30 R IFG/OperIFG/MFG/PreCG 2 cm anterior to C4 0.6 cun anterior and lateral to GB 17 Motor sequencing/planning/learning/imagery, language processing, working memory, visuospatial attention, visuomotor attention, executive control of behavior, same-different discrimination
BD-5 38 5.84 30 40 24 R MFG/SFG 1.5 cm posterior to F4 1 cun posterior and superior to GB 4 Attributing intention, theory of mind, suppressing sadness, working memory, spatial memory, recognition, recall, recognizing the emotions of others, planning, calculation, attention to positive emotions
BD-6 54 6.57 32 − 54 40 R IPL/SPL/SMG/AG 0.5 cm posterior and superior to P4 0.1 cun anterior and superior to GB 18 Reading, spatial focusing of attention, visuospatial processing, theory of mind, executive control of behavior
BD-7 60 7.29 40 − 78 − 4 R MOG/IOG/ITG 1 cm anterior and inferior to O2 0.6 cun posterior to GB 10 Object recognition, visual function of processing faces
BD-8 205 8.02 − 4 8 52 L MedFG/SFG/SMA Fz GV 22 Motor sequencing/planning/learning/imagery, speech motor programming, working memory, episodic long-term memory, topographic memory, attention, planning/solving novel problems, executive control of behavior, processing emotions and self-reflections in decision making
  1. BD, bipolar disorder; L, left; R, right; SFG, superior frontal gyrus; MFG, middle frontal gyrus; IFG, inferior frontal gyrus; OrbIFG, orbital inferior frontal gyrus; OperIFG, opercular inferior frontal gyrus; MedFG, medial frontal gyrus; STG, superior temporal gyrus; ITG, inferior temporal gyrus; STP, superior temporal pole; SPL, superior parietal lobule; IPL, inferior parietal lobule; SMG, supramarginal gyrus; AG, angular gyrus; PreCG, precentral gyrus; SMA, supplementary motor area; MOG, middle occipital gyrus; IOG, inferior occipital gyrus; cm, centimeter; cun, Chinese inches, 1 cun is about 3.33 cm; GB 4, Hanyan; GB 6, Xuanli; GB 7, Qubin; GB 10, Fubai; GB 17, Zhengying; GB 18, Chengling; GV 22, Xinhui