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Table 11 Identified scalp stimulation targets for autism spectrum

From: Potential scalp stimulation targets for mental disorders: evidence from neuroimaging studies

Cluster ID Cluster size Peak T Peak coordinates Brain regions 10–20 EEG system locations Acupoint locations Functions
x y z
AUT-1 674 17.27 − 46 10 32 L IFG/TriIFG/OperIFG/MFG/PreCG 1.5 cm posterior and inferior to F3 0.6 cun posterior and superior to GB 4 Motor sequencing/planning/learning/imagery, language processing, working memory, visuospatial attention, executive control of behavior, processing emotions and self-reflections in decision making
AUT-2 310 13.39 − 38 22 − 6 L IFG/OrbIFG/TriIFG/OperIFG/STG 1 cm posterior to F7 0.3 cun anterior and inferior to GB 6 Motor learning/imagery/control, executive control of behavior, language processing, working memory, auditory imagery, pain anticipation
AUT-3 535 16.21 0 14 48 SMA/MedFG/SupMFG/SFG Anterior 2/3 point of line Fz and Cz Midpoint of GV 21 and GV 22 Somesthetic senses
AUT-4 246 14.45 46 8 28 R IFG/OperIFG/TriIFG/MFG/PreCG 1.5 cm posterior to F4 0.6 cun anterior and inferior to GB 16 Semantic tasks, theory of mind (the ability to understand the mental state of others through observation, inferring, and projecting)
AUT-5 97 8.44 40 38 24 R MFG/IFG/TriIFG 1 cm anterior and inferior to F4 0.3 cun anterior and superior to GB 4 Attributing intention, theory of mind, suppressing sadness, working memory, spatial memory, recognition, recall, recognizing the emotions of others, planning, attention to positive emotions
AUT-6 67 17.27 34 26 − 6 R IFG/OrbIFG 1 cm posterior and inferior to F8 0.1 cun anterior and inferior to GB 6 Interoceptive awareness, motor control, self-awareness, social emotions, body representation and subjective emotional experience, salience, auditory perception
AUT-7 158 11.62 − 30 − 56 40 L IPL/SPL/SMG/PCu P3 0.6 cun medial and superior to GB 9 Visuospatial processing, motor execution/imagery, working memory (motor, visual, auditory, emotional, verbal), pain perception, language processing, processing emotions and self-reflections during decision making
AUT-8 133 13.03 − 2 − 56 26 L PreCG/PCu/SPL 1 cm posterior to midpoint of P3 and P4 0.6 cun superior to GV 18 Processing semantic emotional information, episodic memory retrieval, evaluative judgment, precautionary reasoning, control of self-determined finger movements
AUT-9 50 10.21 34 − 56 44 R IPL/SPL/AG P4 0.6 cun medial and superior to GB 9 Spatial focusing of attention, visuospatial processing, executive control of behavior, theory of mind
  1. AUT, autism; L, left; R, right; SFG, superior frontal gyrus; MFG, middle frontal gyrus; IFG, inferior frontal gyrus; OrbIFG, orbital inferior frontal gyrus; TriIFG, triangular inferior frontal gyrus; OperIFG, opercular inferior frontal gyrus; SupMFG, superior medial frontal gyrus; MedFG, medial frontal gyrus; STG, superior temporal gyrus; SPL, superior parietal lobule; IPL, inferior parietal lobule; SMG, supramarginal gyrus; AG, angular gyrus; PreCG, precentral gyrus; PCu, precuneus; SMA, supplementary motor area; cm, centimeter; cun, Chinese inches, 1 cun is about 3.33 cm; GB 4, Hanyan; GB 6, Xuanli; GB 9, Tianchong; GB 16, Muchuang; GV 18, Qiangjian; GV 21, Qianding; GV 22, Xinhui