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Table 1 Participation of exosomes in lung cancer metastasis

From: The role of exosomes in lung cancer metastasis and clinical applications: an updated review

Source of exosome Exosomal component Mechanism or pathway Principal effects References
BMSCs miR-210-3p, miR-193a-3p, and miR-5100 Exosome-mediated transfer of miRNAs activates STAT3 pathway Enhanced cancer cell invasion and EMT [86]
Melanoma RAB1A, RAB5B, RAB7, and RAB27A Reprogrammed cells were positive for c-Kit, receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2, and Met Increased metastatic behavior, induced vascular leakiness at pre-metastatic sites, and reprogrammed bone marrow progenitor cells [53]
Tumor snRNAs Activation of lung epithelial TLR3 to recruit neutrophils TLR3-deficient mice showed reduced lung metastasis [49]
Phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 subunit and MAPKs ERK, JNK, and p38 signaling pathway Exosomal snRNAs activated TLR3 to induce chemokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment
hucMSCs Activation of Smad2/3, AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin, NF-κB, ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK in TGF-β1 signaling pathways Promoted EMT, invasion, and migration, yet inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis of lung cancer cells [84]
Lung tumor circSATB2 Positive regulation of FSCN1 expression via miR-326 in lung cancer cells Enhanced proliferation, migration, and invasion of NSCLC cells, as well as an induced abnormal proliferation of normal human bronchial epithelial cells [66]
Lung tumor miR-660-5p miR-660-5p targeting of KLF9 to promote tumorigenesis Enhanced proliferation, migration, viability, and metastasis [67]
Lung tumor circ-CPA4 and let-7 miRNA CPA4-regulated effects via let-7 miRNA/PD-L1 axis Promoted cell stemness, mobility, and drug resistance of NSCLC [68]
Lung tumor lnc-MMP2-2 TGF-β-mediated exosomal miRNA regulation Increased cancer cell migration, invasion potential, and vascular permeability [69]
Mouse and human lung tumor integrins α6β4 and α6β1 Activation of Src phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory S100 gene expression Associated with lung metastasis and predict organ-specific metastasis [50]
SCLC patients and mouse model miR-141 Activation of miR-141/KLF12 pathway SCLC angiogenesis [42]
Administration of lung cancer-derived exosomes to NIH/3T3 cells miR-210 Modulation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and TET2 in recipient fibroblasts Increased angiogenesis via elevated expression of proangiogenic factors MMP9, FGF2 and VEGFA [43]
NSCLC cells miR-619-5p Targeted inhibition of RCAN1.4 Promoted growth and metastasis of NSCLCs [73]
Adipocytes MMP3 and MMP9 Transfer of MMP3 to activate MMP9 Promoted lung tumor metastasis [85]
Plasma Three clusters of miRNAs including miR-574-5p, 328-3p and miR-423-3p Regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway Involved in preconditioning the metastatic niche and promoting bone metastasis of lung cancer [78]