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Table 3 Demographic and clinical characteristics by the trajectory groups of CVD risk score

From: Trajectories of cardiovascular disease risk and their association with the incidence of cardiovascular events over 18 years of follow-up: The Tehran Lipid and Glucose study

Characteristics* Low–Low Medium–Medium High–High P†
No. of participants (%) 2740 (73.9) 792 (21.6) 167 (4.6)
Men, n (%) 943 (34.4) 517 (65.4) 128 (76.7)  < .0001
Baseline
Age, mean ± SD, y 49.2 ± 6.5 63.5 ± 5.8 69.1 ± 6.2  < .0001
Body mass index, kg/m2 28.2 ± 4.6 27.5 ± 4.3 27.6 ± 3.8 0.0002
Total cholesterol, mg/dL 223.7 ± 46.7 228.8 ± 45.9 229.8 ± 52.0 0.0110
LDL cholesterol, mg/dL 143.7 ± 38.6 148.4 ± 39.1 145.4 ± 36.5 0.0124
HDL cholesterol, mg/dL 42.6 ± 11.0 41.5 ± 10.8 39.4 ± 9.3 0.0001
Triglycerides, mg/dL, median (IQR) 165 (117–232) 177 (123–245) 179 (133–289) 0.0004
Lipid-lowering medication, n (%) 126 (4.6) 55 (7.0) 18 (10.8)  < .0001
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg 122.0 ± 17.6 137.3 ± 21.1 152.3 ± 25.9  < .0001
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg 80.2 ± 10.7 81.8 ± 12.2 85.4 ± 13.4  < .0001
Hypertension, n (%) 732 (26.7) 406 (51.3) 124 (74.3)  < .0001
Anti-hypertensive medication, n (%) 218 (8.0) 158 (20.0) 58 (34.7)  < .0001
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 233 (8.5) 173 (21.9) 82 (49.1)  < .0001
Anti-diabetic medication, n (%) 107 (3.9) 86 (10.9) 39 (23.4)  < .0001
Current smoking, n (%) 318 (11.6) 123 (15.6) 23 (13.8) 0.012
CVD risk score, median (IQR) 0.02 (0.01–0.03) 0.09 (0.07–0.12) 0.20 (0.17–0.26) 0.0001
Follow up (Examination cycle four)
Age, mean ± SD, y 59.0 ± 6.4 73.0 ± 5.8 78.5 ± 5.7  < .0001
Body mass index, kg/m2 29.5 ± 4.9 27.6 ± 4.3 27.6 ± 4.4  < .0001
Total cholesterol, mg/dL 203.8 ± 43.1 196.2 ± 42.5 183.6 ± 40.2  < .0001
LDL cholesterol, mg/dL 122.5 ± 36.2 119.1 ± 37.1 108.6 ± 35.1 0.0005
HDL cholesterol, mg/dL 48.3 ± 11.1 45.8 ± 10.7 42.7 ± 10.4  < .0001
Triglycerides, mg/dL, median (IQR) 144 (105–200) 141 (105–191) 140.5 (103–209) 0.4479
Lipid-lowering medication, n (%) 402 (17.4) 114 (19.3) 24 (23.3) 0.044
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg 124.8 ± 18.6 137.9 ± 22.0 153.0 ± 24.6  < .0001
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg 79.7 ± 11.0 79.6 ± 12.6 82.3 ± 14.1 0.1166
Hypertension, n (%) 952 (41.1) 380 (63.9) 73 (83.0)  < .0001
Anti-hypertensive medication, n (%) 557 (24.1) 232 (39.3) 47 (54.0)  < .0001
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 437 (18.9) 194 (32.8) 61 (69.3)  < .0001
Anti-diabetic medication, n (%) 274 (11.9) 140 (23.7) 51 (58.0)  < .0001
Current smoking, n (%) 191 (8.2) 59 (10.0) 6 (6.8) 0.370
CVD risk score, median (IQR) 0.03 (0.02–0.06) 0.17 (0.13–0.22) 0.38 (0.31–0.44) 0.0001
  1. HDL indicates high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein
  2. *Numbers represent mean ± SD or median (IQR) for continuous variables; numbers and percentages are corresponding to "Yes" for dichotomous variables
  3. ANOVA or Kruskal–Wallis for continuous variables and chi-square for categorical variables