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Table 3 Number of COVID-19 cases and controls and statistical power in a Mendelian randomization study of the serum vitamin D concentration and three COVID-19 phenotypes

From: Using genetic variants to evaluate the causal effect of serum vitamin D concentration on COVID-19 susceptibility, severity and hospitalization traits: a Mendelian randomization study

Exposure Outcome Minimum detectable odds ratio
Trait Cases Controls Total Proportion of cases r2 = 0.01 r2 = 0.02 r2 = 0.03 r2 = 0.04 r2 = 0.05
25(OH)D COVID-19 susceptibility 38,984 1,644,784 1,683,768 0.0232 1.1430/0.8579 1.1010/0.8994 1.0834/0.9178 1.0722/0.9288 1.0639/0.9356
COVID-19 severity 5101 1,383,241 1,388,342 0.0037 1.3945/0.6115 1.2789/0.7251 1.2249/0.7754 1.1971/0.8031 1.1742/0.8239
COVID-19 hospitalization 9986 1,877,672 1,887,658 0.0053 1.2795/0.7179 1.1976/0.8004 1.1613/0.8390 1.1397/0.8588 1.1249/0.8737
  1. COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019, 25(OH)D 25-hydroxyvitamin D, r2 the proportion of phenotypic variation explained by genetic variants
  2. Minimum detectable odds ratio per 1-SD increase/decrease in 25(OH)D concentration: assume 80% power, 5% alpha level and that 1–5% of 25(OH)D variance is explained by the genetic variants used in the current study