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Table 2 Heterogeneity and pleiotropy analysis of the serum 25(OH)D concentration on three COVID-19 phenotypes using different sets of SNPs as instrumental variables

From: Using genetic variants to evaluate the causal effect of serum vitamin D concentration on COVID-19 susceptibility, severity and hospitalization traits: a Mendelian randomization study

Outcomes SNPs selection MR methods Number of SNPs Cochran Q statistic Heterogeneity p‐value MR-Egger
Intercept Intercept p-value
COVID-19 susceptibility Complete IVW 112 214.2548 1.49E−08 − 0.0001 0.9561
Complete MR-Egger 112 214.2489 1.06E−08   
Complete Maximum likelihood 112 214.2201 1.50E−08   
Steiger filtered IVW 109 211.3969 1.08E−08 − 0.0002 0.9495
Steiger filtered MR-Egger 109 211.3890 7.64E− 09   
Steiger filtered Maximum likelihood 109 211.3606 1.09E− 08   
Outlier removed IVW 106 128.5356 0.0592 − 0.0008 0.7440
Outlier removed MR-Egger 106 128.4032 0.0525   
Outlier removed Maximum likelihood 106 128.4887 0.0595   
COVID-19 severity Complete IVW 112 137.6576 0.0439 0.0033 0.9573
Complete MR-Egger 112 137.6540 0.0382   
Complete Maximum likelihood 112 137.6563 0.0439   
Steiger filtered IVW 109 128.7771 0.0843 − 0.0053 0.4718
Steiger filtered MR-Egger 109 128.1526 0.0780   
Steiger filtered Maximum likelihood 109 128.7767 0.0843   
Outlier removed IVW 109 128.7771 0.0843 − 0.0053 0.4718
Outlier removed MR-Egger 109 128.1526 0.0780   
Outlier removed Maximum likelihood 109 128.7767 0.0843   
COVID-19 hospitalization Complete IVW 111 136.2421 0.0456 − 0.0037 0.3797
Complete MR-Egger 111 135.2766 0.0447   
Complete Maximum likelihood 111 136.2287 0.0456   
Steiger filtered IVW 109 134.9943 0.0403 − 0.0033 0.5101
Steiger filtered MR-Egger 109 134.4456 0.0375   
Steiger filtered Maximum likelihood 109 134.9891 0.0403   
Outlier removed IVW 109 134.9943 0.0403 − 0.0033 0.5101
Outlier removed MR-Egger 109 134.4456 0.0375   
Outlier removed Maximum likelihood 109 134.9891 0.0403   
  1. COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019, SNP single nucleotide polymorphism, MR Mendelian randomization, OR odds ratio, IVW inverse variance weighted, 25(OH)D 25-hydroxyvitamin D