Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of the univariable Mendelian randomization of the causal effect of the serum 25(OH)D concentration on three COVID-19 phenotypes using different sets of SNPs as instrumental variables

From: Using genetic variants to evaluate the causal effect of serum vitamin D concentration on COVID-19 susceptibility, severity and hospitalization traits: a Mendelian randomization study

Outcomes SNPs selection MR methods Number of SNPs OR (95% CI) SE MR p-value
COVID-19 susceptibility Complete IVW-fixed 112 0.9369 (0.8656–1.0142) 0.0404 0.1070
Complete IVW-random 112 0.9369 (0.8393–1.0460) 0.0562 0.2460
Complete MR-Egger 112 0.9404 (0.7923–1.1161) 0.0874 0.4834
Complete Weighted median 112 0.9738 (0.8560–1.1077) 0.0658 0.6860
Complete MR.RAPS 112 0.9206 (0.8353–1.0146) 0.0496 0.0952
Steiger filtered IVW-fixed 109 0.9307 (0.8437–1.0268) 0.0501 0.1519
Steiger filtered IVW-random 109 0.9307 (0.8113–1.0678) 0.0701 0.3057
Steiger filtered MR-Egger 109 0.9375 (0.7212–1.2187) 0.1338 0.6305
Steiger filtered Weighted median 109 0.9539 (0.8032–1.1329) 0.0877 0.5907
Steiger filtered MR.RAPS 109 0.9149 (0.8099–1.0335) 0.0622 0.1528
Outlier removed MR-PRESSO 106 0.9049 (0.8111–1.0094) 0.0558 0.0759
Outlier removed IVW-fixed 106 0.9049 (0.8197–0.9988) 0.0504 0.0473
Outlier removed IVW-random 106 0.9049 (0.8111–1.0094) 0.0558 0.0730
Outlier removed MR-Egger 106 0.9319 (0.7571–1.1470) 0.1060 0.5071
Outlier removed Weighted median 106 0.9535 (0.8052–1.1291) 0.0862 0.5806
Outlier removed MR.RAPS 106 0.8995 (0.8056–1.0043) 0.0562 0.0595
COVID-19 severity Complete IVW-fixed 112 0.9503 (0.7410–1.2187) 0.1269 0.6881
Complete IVW-random 112 0.9503 (0.7204–1.2537) 0.1413 0.7185
Complete MR-Egger 112 0.9412 (0.5998–1.4768) 0.2299 0.7924
Complete Weighted median 112 0.8956 (0.5803–1.3822) 0.2214 0.6185
Complete MR.RAPS 112 0.9302 (0.7122–1.2150) 0.1363 0.5954
Steiger filtered IVW-fixed 109 1.0298 (0.7699–1.3775) 0.1484 0.8432
Steiger filtered IVW-random 109 1.0298 (0.7496–1.4148) 0.1621 0.8562
Steiger filtered MR-Egger 109 1.2444 (0.6799–2.2775) 0.3084 0.4798
Steiger filtered Weighted median 109 1.0766 (0.6639–1.7460) 0.2467 0.7646
Steiger filtered MR.RAPS 109 0.9679 (0.7052–1.3284) 0.1615 0.8400
Outlier removed MR-PRESSO 109 1.0277 (0.7512–1.4060) 0.1599 0.8646
Outlier removed IVW-fixed 109 1.0298 (0.7699–1.3775) 0.1484 0.8432
Outlier removed IVW-random 109 1.0298 (0.7496–1.4148) 0.1621 0.8562
Outlier removed MR-Egger 109 1.2444 (0.6799–2.2775) 0.3084 0.4798
Outlier removed Weighted median 109 1.0766 (0.6639–1.7460) 0.2467 0.7646
Outlier removed MR.RAPS 109 0.9679 (0.7052–1.3284) 0.1615 0.8400
COVID-19 hospitalization Complete IVW-fixed 111 1.1099 (0.9405–1.3098) 0.0845 0.2173
Complete IVW-random 111 1.1099 (0.9230–1.3345) 0.0940 0.2676
Complete MR-Egger 111 1.2364 (0.9135–1.6736) 0.1544 0.1722
Complete Weighted median 111 1.1002 (0.8436–1.4349) 0.1355 0.4808
Complete MR.RAPS 111 1.1043 (0.9145–1.3336) 0.0962 0.3025
Steiger filtered IVW-fixed 109 1.0713 (0.8819–1.3013) 0.0992 0.4878
Steiger filtered IVW-random 109 1.0713 (0.8619–1.3315) 0.1109 0.5349
Steiger filtered MR-Egger 109 1.2068 (0.7968–1.8279) 0.2118 0.3768
Steiger filtered Weighted median 109 1.0567 (0.7572–1.4747) 0.1700 0.7456
Steiger filtered MR.RAPS 109 1.0546 (0.8442–1.3176) 0.1136 0.6394
Outlier removed MR-PRESSO 109 1.0611 (0.8557–1.3159) 0.1099 0.5901
Outlier removed IVW-fixed 109 1.0713 (0.8819–1.3013) 0.0992 0.4878
Outlier removed IVW-random 109 1.0713 (0.8619–1.3315) 0.1109 0.5349
Outlier removed MR-Egger 109 1.2068 (0.7968–1.8279) 0.2118 0.3768
Outlier removed Weighted median 109 1.0567 (0.7572–1.4747) 0.1700 0.7456
Outlier removed MR.RAPS 109 1.0546 (0.8442–1.3176) 0.1136 0.6394
  1. COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019, SNP single nucleotide polymorphism, MR Mendelian randomization, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, IVW-fixed inverse variance weighted with fixed effects, IVW-random  inverse variance weighted with random effects, MR.RAPS MR Robust Adjusted Profile Score, MR-PRESSO MR Pleiotropy RESidual Sum and Outlier, 25(OH)D 25-hydroxyvitamin D