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Table 4 Effects of the training intervention on body composition and blood variables in COPD and Healthy, assessed as changes from baseline to after completion of the study (per study cluster) and as differential changes between study clusters

From: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease does not impair responses to resistance training

  COPD Healthy ∆ COPD vs∆ Healthy (P value)
Baseline Post RT Time effect (P < 0.05) Baseline Post RT Time effect (P < 0.05)
Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry
 Whole-body bone mineral density (g . cm2) 1.13 (0.21) 1.13 (0.21) No 1.15 (0.16) 1.14 (0.15) No 0.119
 Total lean mass (kg) 46.7 (9.9) 47.6 (10.2) Yes ↑ 48.1 (10.0) 48.6 (10.0) Yes ↑ 0.395
 Appendicular lean mass (kg) 20.3 (5.3) 20.9 (5.5) Yes ↑ 21.6 (5.0) 21.9 (5.0) Yes ↑ 0.166
 Total fat mass (kg) 26.4 (11.7) 26.3 (11.5) No 25.3 (9.3) 24.4 (9.2) Yes ↓ 0.068
 Visceral fat (kg) 1.59 (1.18) 1.56 (1.21) No 1.12 (0.98) 1.01 (0.81) Yes ↓ 0.138
Inflammation
 C-reactive protein (mg . L−1) 3.4 (5.0) 3.6 (4.0) No 1.7 (2.5) 1.8 (3.5) No 0.934
Hormones
 Cortisol (nmol . L−1) 307 (130)* 310 (109) No 369 (88) 372 (99) No 0.861
 Growth hormone (µg . L−1) 1.4 (2.8) 1.4 (3.1) No 1.1 (1.7) 1.3 (1.6) No 0.837
 IGF-1 (nmol .−1) 15.7 (4.2) 15.0 (4.5) No 14.4 (3.2) 13.6 (3.1) Yes ↓ 0.977
 Testosterone (nmol . L−1)† 11.2 (4.4) 11.4 (4.2) No 11.9 (3.3) 12.4 (4.2) No 0.938
 Sex-hormone binding globulin (nmol . L−1) 60 (33) 60 (34) No 60 (22) 60 (21) No 0.488
 Androstenedione (nmol . L−1) 3.3 (2.4) 3.3 (2.4) No 3.8 (2.7) 3.8 (2.4) No 0.984
 Parathyroid hormone (pmol . L−1) 5.7 (2.6) 6.0 (3.3) No 5.0 (2.2) 5.2 (1.9) No 0.870
Lipid profile variables
 Triglycerides (mmol . L−1) 1.2 (0.5) 1.1 (0.5) No 1.2 (0.5) 1.1 (0.6) Yes ↓ 0.661
 HDL (mmol . L−1) 1.6 (0.6) 1.7 (0.5) No 1.7 (0.5) 1.7 (0.5) No 0.523
 LDL (mmol . L−1) 2.8 (1.0)* 2.8 (1.0) No 3.4 (1.0) 3.3 (0.8) No 0.775
Iron biology variables
 Fe2+ (µmol .l L−1) 18 (7) 18 (6) No 18 (6) 18 (5) No 0.410
 Transferrin (g . L−1) 2.66 (0.44)* 2.67 (0.45) No 2.41 (0.27) 2.38 (0.29) No 0.563
 Ferritin (µg . L−1) 113 (92) 90 (81) Yes ↓ 139 (79) 133 (68) No 0.089
Calcium status
 Calcium (mmol . L−1) 2.4 (0.1) 2.4 (0.1) No 2.4 (0.1) 2.4 (0.1) No 0.865
 Albumin-corrected calcium (mmol . L−1) 2.3 (0.1) 2.3 (0.1) No 2.3 (0.1) 2.3 (0.1) No 0.802
Tissue damage variables
 Aspartate transaminase (units . L−1) 27 (9) 24 (6) No 26 (21) 26 (7) No 0.807
 Creatine kinase (units . L−1) 112 (69) 123 (71) No 95 (47) 125 (72) Yes ↑ 0.523
  1. Body composition analyses, n COPD = 19, n Healthy = 48; blood analyses, n COPD = 20, n Healthy = 58. *significant difference between COPD and Healthy at baseline; †only men were included in testosterone analysis; ↓significant decrease from baseline to post RT (after 13 weeks of resistance training); ↑significant increase from baseline to post RT. Alpha level at p < 0.05. Data are presented as means (SD)