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Table 4 Baseline characteristics of participants by multi-trajectory groups of LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG at baseline and exam 4 in the trajectory sample (n = 14,373)

From: Multi-trajectories of lipid indices with incident cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and all-cause mortality: 23 years follow-up of two US cohort studies

Characteristics Lipid profile multi-trajectory groups p value
Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 Group 7
No. of participants (%) 3700 (25.1) 2696 (18.7) 2412 (16.8) 1355 (9.8) 1868 (13.1) 865 (6.0) 1477 (10.5)
Sex, n (%)
 Women 1383 (37.4) 1347 (49.9) 834 (34.6) 1135 (83.8) 1251 (67.0) 755 (87.3) 1134 (76.8) < 0.001
 Men 2317 (62.6) 1349 (50.1) 1578 (65.4) 220 (16.2) 619 (33.0) 110 (12.7) 343 (23.2)
Race, n (%)
 White/Caucasian 2271 (61.4) 1997 (74.1) 1716 (71.1) 972 (71.7) 1094 (58.6) 591 (68.3) 952 (64.5) < 0.001
 African American 962 (26) 512 (19) 260 (10.8) 175 (12.9) 583 (31.2) 227 (16.3) 446 (30.2)
 Hispanic/Latino 298 (8.1) 137 (5.1) 290 (12.0) 130 (9.6) 114 (6.1) 30 (3.5) 45 (3.1)
 Asian/Chinese 169 (4.6) 50 (1.9) 146 (6.1) 78 (5.8) 77 (4.1) 17 (2.0) 34 (2.3)
Baseline
 Age, y 56.3 (8.6) 56.3 (6.9) 55.6 (7.9) 56.7 (7.9) 56.5 (9.2) 56.6 (8.5) 56.1 (7.5) 0.005
 BMI, kg/m2 28.1 (5.1) 28.2 (4.7) 29.3 (4.8) 27.2 (5.3) 26.2 (5.4) 24.4 (4.4) 26.6 (5.1) < 0.001
 TC, mg/dL 184.7 (27.9) 246.5 (34.6) 197.7 (32.6) 207.7 (28.6) 179.0 (26.3) 211.5 (32.6) 234.8 (31.4) < 0.001
 LDL-C, mg/dL 120.0 (25.7) 172.1 (31.5) 120.2 (29.1) 119.4 (26.2) 101.8 (24.2) 107.3 (30.1) 152.2 (29.1) < 0.001
 HDL-C, mg/dL 45.1 (7. 6) 45.0 (8.6) 37.3 (7.6) 59.8 (9.4) 63.3 (9.7) 88.9 (14.5) 64.8 (10.2) < 0.001
 TG, mg/dL 97.8 (33.7) 147.1 (54.1) 200.9 (68.9) 142.6 (51.3) 69.3 (21.8) 76.8 (31.0) 89.5 (29.2) < 0.001
 Lipid-lowering drug 608 (16.6) 656 (24.5) 479 (20.0) 244 (18.1) 238 (12.8) 103 (12.0) 281 (19.1) < 0.001
 SBP, mmHg 121.3 (19.0) 122.1 (17.8) 122.2 (17.0) 121.5 (18.8) 118.0 (19.3) 118.0 (19.1) 120.8 (18.9) < 0.001
 DBP, mmHg 73.1 (10.4) 73.4 (10.4) 73.5 (9.9) 71.3 (9.9) 70.7 (10.4) 70.2 (10.7) 72.6 (10.6) < 0.001
 Hypertension 1207 (32.7) 913 (33.9) 852 (35.4) 430 (31.8) 506 (27.2) 209 (24.2) 468 (31.8) < 0.001
 Antihypertensive drug 1008 (27.3) 750 (27.8) 721 (29.9) 347 (25.6) 442 (23.7) 172 (19.9) 370 (25.1) < 0.001
 Diabetes mellitus, 345 (9.3) 247 (9.2) 366 (15.2) 85 (6.3) 112 (6.0) 30 (3.5) 84 (5.7) < 0.001
 Current smoking 687 (18.6) 580 (21.6) 501 (20.8) 221 (16.3) 293 (15.7) 132 (15.3) 220 (14.9) < 0.001
 Current drinking 2118 (57.6) 1540 (57.3) 1416 (58.8) 804 (59.6) 1141 (61.3) 605 (70.0) 886 (60.4) < 0.001
 Physical activity (MET-minutes/week) 1070.1 (1715.2) 801 (1432.4) 913.7 (1399.0) 966.5 (1645.4) 1226.3 (1786.3) 1065.2 (1568.2) 874.4 (1280.8) < 0.001
 Calorie intake (Kcal) 1652.2 (745.7) 1631.7 (703.2) 1697.5 (755.1) 1489.0 (638.0) 1520.0 (673.2) 1485.9 (629.1) 1529.5 (695.1) < 0.001
 CVD family history 2024 (58.8) 1641 (66.3) 1389 (62.1) 817 (63.7) 1000 (58.1) 474 (59.5) 834 (61.5) < 0.001
Follow-up (exam 4)
 Age, y 63.5 (7.9) 64.5 (6.4) 63.0 (7.3) 64.0 (7.2) 63.6 (8.4) 64.2 (7.6) 64.0 (7.0) < 0.001
 BMI, kg/m2 28.9 (5.5) 29.3 (5.0) 30.2 (5.0) 28.3 (5.7) 26.9 (5.7) 25.2 (4.9) 27.6 (5.4) < 0.001
 TC, mg/dL 176.9 (28.8) 224.9 (35.9) 185.1 (34.1) 201.6 (30.1) 176.4 (25.4) 208.6 (30.6) 226.5 (28.4) < 0.001
 LDL-C, mg/dL 112.2 (25.8) 152.4 (31.4) 106.0 (27.4) 110.9 (26.5) 98.0 (23.4) 103.8 (28.0) 143.7 (25.6) < 0.001
 HDL-C, mg/dL 44.6 (7.9) 43.5 (8.2) 36.8 (7.6) 58.7 (10.1) 63.5 (9.9) 87.5 (15.0) 63.1 (10.1) < 0.001
 TG, mg/dL 102.0 (35.2) 162.3 (66.9) 219.3 (103) 161.0 (63.0) 74.0 (24.9) 87.5 (40.3) 102.3 (36.4) < 0.001
 Lipid-lowering drug 1178 (32.4) 1291 (48.2) 937 (39.4) 468 (35.0) 420 (22.9) 211 (24.7) 505 (34.6) < 0.001
 SBP, mmHg 124.4 (18.7) 128.4 (19.3) 125.8 (18.2) 127.1 (20.1) 122.0 (19.9) 123.7 (20.0) 126.6 (20.2) < 0.001
 DBP, mmHg 71.0 (9.8) 70.8 (10.3) 70.6 (10.1) 69.7 (10.2) 69.6 (10.4) 69.1 (9.8) 70.8 (10.4) 0.045
 Hypertension 1677 (45.8) 1357 (50.7) 1188 (49.7) 658 (48.9) 746 (40.3) 331 (38.5) 684 (46.6) < 0.001
 Antihypertensive drug 1570 (43.1) 1259 (46.9) 1114 (46.8) 553 (41.3) 657 (35.8) 286 (33.5) 583 (39.8) < 0.001
 Diabetes mellitus 587 (16.1) 471 (17.6) 681 (28.4) 152 (11.3) 177 (9.6) 43 (5.0) 115 (7.9) < 0.001
 Current smoking 502 (13.7) 374 (13.9) 327 (13.6) 156 (11.5) 219 (11.8) 94 (10.9) 151 (10.3) < 0.001
 Current drinking 1737 (42.3) 1239 (46.3) 1118 (46.7) 668 (49.6) 993 (53.5) 553 (62.1) 759 (51.9) < 0.001
 CVD incidence ratea 7.50 13.12 11.20 6.23 4.33 5.70 7.35  
  1. Numbers represent mean (standard deviation) for continuous and frequency (%) for categorical variables
  2. ANOVA or Kruskal–Wallis for continuous variables and chi-square for categorical variables
  3. BMI body mass index, TC total cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG triglycerides, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, CVD cardiovascular disease
  4. aPer 1000 person-years; starting to follow up at examination cycle 4 through December 2014