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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of study participants: diabetic nephropathy (DN) patients, diabetic patients without nephropathy (DM) and healthy controls

From: WT1 and ACE mRNAs of blood extracellular vesicle as biomarkers of diabetic nephropathy

Variables Group Total (n = 256) p value
DN (n = 103) DM (n = 100) Control (n = 53)
Age (years) 62 ± 9 62 ± 8 52 ± 11 59.48 ± 10.21 < 0.001
Sex (M/F) (male, %) 67/36 (65%) 50/50 (50%) 22/31 (41.5%) 139/117 (54.3%) 0.011
Family history (n, %) 21 (20.4%) 42 (42%) 9 (17%) 72 (28.1%) < 0.001
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 29.55 ± 4.44 28.29 ± 4.86 30.38 ± 6.83 28.77 ± 4.92 0.578
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 173 ± 86 152 ± 54 99 ± 16 149.2 ± 69.8 < 0.001
HbA1c (%) 8.8 ± 1.9 7.9 ± 1.5 5.8 ± 0.4 7.8 ± 1.8 < 0.001
Urea (mg/dL) 41 ± 18 34 ± 11 28 ± 7 35 ± 14 < 0.001
Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.23 ± 0.44 .93 ± 0.27 1.01 ± 0.16 1.07 ± 0.36 < 0.001
Urine creatinine 115 ± 62 112 ± 61 161 ± 63 123 ± 65  < 0.001
Urine albumin 373.3 ± 480 12.3 ± 13.7 13.2 ± 19.8 158.8 ± 352.8 < 0.001
Urine Alb/Cr 344.0 ± 450.5 11.0 ± 9.8 7.7 ± 10.0 145.3 ± 329.9 < 0.001
eGFR (mL/min/1.73m2) 89.99 ± 36.21 92.85 ± 30.48 87.29 ± 29.09 90.69 ± 31.18 0.674
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± SD for continuous variables and as number and percentage (n, %) for categorical variables