Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of the study population in training set and validation set

From: Multi-institutional development and external validation of machine learning-based models to predict relapse risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma after radical resection

Variables   Training (n = 183) Validation (n = 79) P
Age (years) Median (q1–q3) 63.0 (56.0–70.0) 63.0 (59.0–67.5) 0.881
Gender Male (%) 115 (62.8) 43 (54.4) 0.255
  Female (%) 68 (37.2) 36 (45.6)  
BMI (kg/m2) Median (q1–q3) 22.4 (20.3–23.9) 21.8 (19.9–24.1) 0.353
CEA (ng/mL)  < 5 (%) 140 (76.5) 51 (64.6) 0.065
   ≥ 5 (%) 43 (23.5) 28 (35.4)  
CA199 (U/mL)  < 37 (%) 49 (26.8) 16 (20.3) 0.334
   ≥ 37 (%) 134 (73.2) 63 (79.7)  
CA125 (U/mL)  < 35 (%) 147 (80.3) 68 (86.1) 0.349
   ≥ 35 (%) 36 (19.7) 11 (13.9)  
WBC (*10^9) Median (q1–q3) 6.0 (4.8–7.3) 5.7 (4.4–6.8) 0.220
Hb (g/L) Median (q1–q3) 127.0 (116.0–140.0) 129.0 (120.0–142.0) 0.110
Plt (*10^9) Median (q1–q3) 191.0 (154.5–232.0) 204.0 (164.0–265.5) 0.132
Neut (*10^9) Median (q1–q3) 3.9 (2.9–4.8) 3.4 (2.4–4.6) 0.093
Lymp (*10^9) Median (q1–q3) 1.4 (1.1–1.7) 1.5 (1.1–1.9) 0.275
Mono (*10^9) Median (q1–q3) 0.5 (0.4–0.6) 0.4 (0.3–0.6) 0.295
Alb (*10^9) Median (q1–q3) 40.4 (37.3–43.3) 40.4 (36.4–43.4) 0.622
Glb (*10^9) Median (q1–q3) 26.7 (24.3–29.5) 28.2 (26.1–31.9) 0.002
AGR Median (q1–q3) 1.5 (1.4–1.7) 1.4 (1.2–1.6) 0.005
NLR Median (q1–q3) 2.7 (2.0–4.2) 2.4 (1.6–3.3) 0.153
LMR Median (q1–q3) 3.0 (2.1–4.2) 3.5 (2.0–5.1) 0.113
PLR Median (q1–q3) 137.1 (106.3–184.1) 140.0 (96.6–217.2) 0.528
AST (U/L) Median (q1–q3) 44.0 (20.5–111.5) 31 (20–90.5) 0.448
ALT (U/L) Median (q1–q3) 50.0 (17.0–200.5) 29.0 (17.0–139.0) 0.119
ALP (U/L) Median (q1–q3) 156.0 (89.5–391.5) 105.0 (67.5–367.0) 0.257
GGT (U/L) Median (q1–q3) 159.0 (25.0–704.0) 51.0 (20.0–494.0) 0.162
TB (μmol/L) Median (q1–q3) 22.1 (12.0–177.3) 14.6 (9.4–134.1) 0.716
DB (μmol/L) Median (q1–q3) 6.4 (2.6–105.2) 5.5 (3.2–109.2) 0.360
Location Head-isthmus (%) 139 (76.0) 54 (68.4) 0.259
  Body-tail (%) 44 (24.0) 25 (31.6)  
Margin R0 (%) 176 (96.2) 79 (100.0) 0.106
  R1 (%) 7 (3.8) 0 (0.0)  
T stage 1 (%) 43 (23.5) 2 (2.5)  < 0.001
  2 (%) 86 (47.0) 55 (69.6)  
  3 (%) 54 (29.5) 22 (27.8)  
N stage 0 (%) 105 (57.4) 36 (45.6) 0.009
  1 (%) 56 (30.6) 39 (49.4)  
  2 (%) 22 (12.0) 4 (5.1)  
VI Yes (%) 83 (45.4) 20 (25.3) 0.004
  No (%) 100 (54.6) 59 (74.7)  
PI Yes (%) 143 (78.1) 67 (84.8) 0.283
  No (%) 40 (21.9) 12 (15.2)  
ATI Yes (%) 82 (44.8) 43 (54.4) 0.195
  No (%) 101 (55.2) 36 (45.6)  
Differentiation Well (%) 37 (20.2) 5 (6.3) 0.019
  Moderate (%) 133 (72.7) 68 (86.1)  
  Poor or undifferentiated (%) 13 (7.1) 6 (7.6)  
OS Median (q1–q3) 19.0 (11.0–33.0) 14.0 (9.0–28.0) 0.340
RFS Median (q1–q3) 11.0 (6.0–22.8) 8.0 (4.0–19.5) 0.503
1-year relapse Yes (%) 106 (57.9) 49 (62.0) 0.629
  No (%) 77 (42.1) 30 (38.0)  
2-year relapse Yes (%) 138 (75.4) 59 (74.7) 1.000
  No (%) 45 (24.6) 20 (25.3)  
  1. BMI body mass index, CEA carcinoembryonic antigen, CA cancer antigen, WBC white blood cell, Hb Hemoglobin, Plt Platelet, Neut neutrophil, Lymph lymphocyte, Mono monocyte, Alb albumin, Glb globulin, AGR albumin-globulin ratio, NLR neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio, LMR lymphcyte-monocyte ratio, PLR platelet-lymphocyte ratio, AST aspartate transaminase, ALT alanine transaminase, ALP alkaline phosphatase, GGT gamma-glutamyltransferase, TB total bilirubin, DB direct bilirubin, VI vascular invasion, PI perineural invasion, ATI adipose tissue invasion, OS overall survival, RFS relapse-free survival