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Table 3 Risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus risk according to change in proteinuria status

From: Dipstick proteinuria and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a nationwide population-based cohort study

Change in proteinuria Participants (number) Casea HR (95% CI)
Crude model Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Negative/Trace → Negative/Trace 231,223 21,249 1 (Ref) 1 (Ref) 1 (Ref) 1 (Ref)
Negative/Trace →  ≥ 1 +  4380 569 1.46 [1.35–1.59] 1.44 [1.32–1.56] 1.30 [1.19–1.41] 1.18 [1.08–1.28]
 ≥ 1 +  → Negative/Trace 2660 276 1.15 [1.02–1.29] 1.19 [1.05–1.33] 1.12 [0.99–1.26] 1.13 [1.01–1.28]
 ≥ 1 +  →  ≥ 1 +  416 68 1.88 [1.48–2.39] 1.77 [1.40–2.25] 1.53 [1.20–1.94] 1.39 [1.10–1.76]
  1. Model 1: adjusted for sex and age
  2. Model 2: adjusted for sex, age, current smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, family history of diabetes, body mass index, systolic blood pressure
  3. Model 3: adjusted for sex, age, current smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, family history of diabetes, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose level, and estimated glomerular filtration rate
  4. HR hazard ratio, CI indicates confidence interval
  5. aNew-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus