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Table 2 Risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus according to degree of proteinuria

From: Dipstick proteinuria and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a nationwide population-based cohort study

Degree of proteinuria Casea HR (95% CI)
Crude model Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
No proteinuria 21,086 1 (Ref) 1 (Ref) 1 (Ref) 1 (Ref)
Trace proteinuria (±) 491 1.06 [0.97–1.16] 1.04 [0.95–1.14] 1.01 [0.92–1.10] 0.96 [0.88–1.05]
Overt proteinuria (≥ 1 +) 638 1.50 [1.38–1.62] 1.46 [1.35–1.58] 1.32 [1.22–1.42] 1.19 [1.10–1.29]
  1. Model 1: adjusted for sex, and age
  2. Model 2: adjusted for sex, age, current smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, family history of diabetes, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure
  3. Model 3: adjusted for sex, age, current smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, family history of diabetes, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose level, and estimated glomerular filtration rate
  4. HR hazard ratio, CI indicates confidence interval
  5. aNew-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus