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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants according to degree of proteinuria

From: Dipstick proteinuria and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a nationwide population-based cohort study

Variable Total Degree of proteinuria P for trend
No proteinuria Trace proteinuria (±) Overt proteinuria (≥ 1 +)
N 239,287 229,426 5054 4807  
Sex, male 128,780 (53.82) 123,210 (53.70) 2881 (57.00) 2689 (55.94)  < 0.001
Age, years 57.12 ± 8.33 57.09 ± 8.31 57.10 ± 8.68 58.50 ± 9.05  < 0.001
Current smoking 42,824 (17.90) 40,863 (17.81) 1014 (20.06) 947 (19.70)  < 0.001
Alcohol consumption, frequency per week       < 0.001
  < 1 time 141,913 (59.13) 136,296 (59.41) 2811 (55.62) 2806 (58.37)  
 1–2 times 64,760 (27.06) 62,011 (27.03) 1511 (29.90) 1238 (25.75)  
 3–4 times 21,364 (8.93) 20,418 (8.90) 491 (9.72) 455 (9.47)  
  ≥ 5 times 11,250 (4.70) 10,701 (4.66) 241 (4.77) 308 (6.41)  
Exercise, days per week      0.398
  < 1 day 59,871 (25.02) 57,433 (25.03) 1149 (22.73) 1289 (26.82)  
 1–4 days 108,348 (45.28) 103,860 (45.27) 2353 (46.56) 2135 (44.41)  
  ≥ 5 days 71,068 (29.70) 68,133 (29.70) 1552 (30.71) 1383 (28.77)  
Body mass index       < 0.001
 Underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2) 5548 (2.32) 5280 (2.30) 129 (2.55) 139 (2.89)  
 Normal range (18.5–23 kg/m2) 90,072 (37.64) 86,733 (37.80) 1782 (35.26) 1577 (32.39)  
 Overweight (23–25 kg/m2) 67,809 (28.34) 65,153 (28.40) 1435 (28.39) 1221 (25.40)  
 Obese (≥ 25 kg/m2) 75,858 (31.70) 72,260 (31.50) 1708 (33.80) 1890 (39.32)  
Hypertension 128,316 (53.62) 122,251 (53.29) 2906 (57.50) 3159 (65.72)  < 0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 124.27 ± 15.12 124.17 ± 15.04 125.25 ± 15.89 128.34 ± 17.41  < 0.001
Family history of diabetes, yes 17,836 (7.45) 17,060 (7.44) 434 (8.59) 342 (7.11) 0.539
Laboratory findings
 Fasting glucose, mg/dL 94.13 ± 11.20 94.07 ± 11.17 95.05 ± 11.48 95.91 ± 11.91  < 0.001
 Estimated glomerular filtration rate, mL/min/1.73 m2 83.66 ± 34.40 83.87 ± 34.43 79.60 ± 36.53 77.92 ± 29.18  < 0.001
  1. Data are represented as the number of participants (%) or mean ± standard deviation. P for trends are derived from the Mantel–Haenszel test for linear trend and the Jonckheere’s trend test