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Table 1 Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) collected from bone marrow (BM), umbilical cord (UC), Wharton jelly (WJ), adipose tissue (ADSCs), dental pulp (DP) or manufactured biological preparations of MSCs are administered to COVID-19 patients

From: Exosomes contribution in COVID-19 patients’ treatment

Clinical trial status Study objective MSC origin used/mode of administration Dose or total administered cells Phase Locations
Completed Safety and efficacy
Cytokine syndrome
3 × 106/kg or 5 × 107–4 × 108 cells 1/2 USA, Japan, Turkey, China, Pakistan, Indonesia
Safety and efficacy
Exosomes inhalation 0.5–2 × 1010 nanoparticles 1/2 Russian, China
Recruiting   BM-MSC/I.V
Biological MSC/I.V
Cryopreserved placenta derived-MSC/I.V
Biological preparations of MSCs
1,5 × 106–9 × 106/kg
or 1 × 108–7.5 × 108 cells
1/2 Spain, USA, China, Jordan, Mexico, Indonesia, Ukraine, Colombia, UK, Canada, Pakistan, Australia, Turkey
Cytokine syndrome Secretome/intramuscular 1CC/12 h × 3 days 2 Indonesia
Pneumonia BM-MSC + exosomes/I.V 2 × 108 + Exosome dose (NA) 2/3 Iran
Not yet recruiting Pneumonia
UC-, BM-, ADSCs-, DP-MSCs, biological preparations/I.V 5 × 105–2 × 107/Kg or 8 × 107–6 × 108 cells 1/2 Brazil, China, USA, Germany
Viral inflammation
MSCs derived exosomes (ARDOXO)/ I.V
UCB educator and MSCs secretome/ IV
2–8 × 109/ml
1 × 106/Kg or conditioned media
1/2 USA
Active not recruiting Pneumonia
Safety and efficacy
WJ-, UCB-MSCs, ADSCs/ I.V 4 × 106/Kg or 8 × 107–8 × 108 cells 1/2 Mexico, USA, China, Spain
  1. Route of administration, doses and selection criteria of patients are different according to the objectives and the status of the clinical trial. Purified exosomes and MSCs derived secretome are also administered in patients alone or associated to MSCs
  2. I.V intravenous infusion, NA not applicable