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Table 3 Unadjusted and Adjusted odds ratios for COVID-19 risk factors in the study cohort

From: Vitamin D status of Arab Gulf residents screened for SARS-CoV-2 and its association with COVID-19 infection: a multi-centre case–control study

  SARS-CoV-2 Unadjusted Adjusted
Negative Positive OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Age > 60 years 4 (5) 33 (25) 6 (2–18) 0.001  
Male 41 (50) 79 (57) 1.3 (0.8–2) 0.3
Obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) 21 (28) 48 (36) 1.5 (0.8–3) 0.2
Type 2 Diabetes 14 (18) 88 (68) 10 (5–20)  < 0.001 6.4 (3–14)  < 0.001
Hypertension 5 (6) 48 (35) 8.2 (3–22)  < 0.001 2.07 (0.7–6) 0.2
Rheumatoid Arthritis 2 (2) 3 (2) 0.9 (0.1–5) 0.9 0.9 (0.1–5) 0.99
Chronic Liver Disease 0 1 (1) 1.8 (0.1–45) 0.72
Thyroid Disease 2 (2) 3 (2) 0.9 (0.1–5) 0.9 1.7 (0.2–12) 0.58
Epilepsy 0 2 (1) 3.0 (0.1–64) 0.48
Chronic Immobilization 0 1 (1) 1.8 (0.1–45) 0.72
Asthma 1 (1) 9 (6) 5.6 (0.7–45) 0.1 6.5 (0.7–61) 0.1
Hyperlipidaemia 0 14 (10) 19.2 (1.1–327) 0.04
Heart Disease 0 10 (7) 13.5 (0.8–233) 0.07
Anaemia 3 (4) 0 0.08 (0–2) 0.1
Chronic Kidney Disease 0 5 (4) 6.8 (0.4–125) 0.19
Hypertriglyceridemia 18 (23) 48 (37) 2.0 (1–4) 0.04 1.7 (0.8–4) 0.17
Low HDL-Cholesterol 28 (35) 106 (82) 8.1 (4–15)  < 0.001 6.1 (3–14)  < 0.001
  1. Data presented as frequencies (%) and Odds Ratio (OR) (95%CI), p < 0.05 considered significant