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Table 2 Clinical Characteristics of Participants According to SARS-CoV-2 Status

From: Vitamin D status of Arab Gulf residents screened for SARS-CoV-2 and its association with COVID-19 infection: a multi-centre case–control study

Clinical characteristics Overall R SARS-CoV-2 p-value p-value*
Negative Positive
N 220   82 (37.3) 138 (62.7)   
Arterial Blood Pressure
 Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) 126 ± 16 0.02 119 ± 10 130 ± 18  < 0.001  < 0.001
 Diastolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) 75 ± 11 0.00 76 ± 9 75 ± 12 0.75 0.75
Vital Signs
 Temperature (°C) 37.1 ± 1.1 − 0.04 36.6 ± 0.5 37.5 ± 1.2  < 0.001  < 0.001
 Pulse Rate 92 ± 16 − 0.16 94 ± 15.3 92 ± 17 0.31 0.77
 Respiratory Rate 22 ± 4 − 0.04 20 ± 3 24 ± 4  < 0.001  < 0.001
Lipid Profile
 Total Cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.0 ± 1.5 − 0.10 4.6 ± 1.5 3.6 ± 1.4  < 0.001 0.001
 HDL-Cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.0 ± 0.4 0.02 1.2 ± 0.4 0.8 ± 0.4  < 0.001  < 0.001
 LDL-Cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.4 ± 0.9 − 0.06 2.7 ± 1.1 2.0 ± 1.0  < 0.001 0.01
 Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.6 ± 1.1 − 0.07 1.4 ± 1.2 1.6 ± 1.0  < 0.001 0.22
Glycemic Profile
 Glucose (mmol/l) 9.3 ± 5.9 − 0.03 6.0 ± 3.1 10.6 ± 6.8  < 0.001 0.004
Vitamin D
 25(OH) D (nmol/L) 57.5 ± 27.5 61.8 ± 22.8 55.0 ± 28.8 0.06 0.009
Inflammatory Markers
 Interleukin-6 (ng/ml) 8.6 ± 11.2 0.01 6.6 ± 11.1 10.1 ± 11.1 0.004 0.008
 C-Reactive Protein (µg/ml) 21.9 ± 27.7 0.02 8.9 ± 10.5 42.9 ± 33.6  < 0.001 0.002
  1. Data presented as Mean ± SD whereas R indicates correlation coefficient, # indicates significance at 0.05. * indicates p-value adjusted for age and BMI. Bonferroni corrected p < 0.0038 is considered significant