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Table 1 General Characteristics of Participants

From: Vitamin D status of Arab Gulf residents screened for SARS-CoV-2 and its association with COVID-19 infection: a multi-centre case–control study

Parameters Overall Negative Positive p-value
N (%) 220 82 (37) 138 (63)  
Anthropometrics and Demographics
 Male/Female 120/100 41/41 79/59 0.30
 Age (years) 43 ± 15 32 ± 13 50 ± 13  < 0.01
 BMI (kg/m2) 28 ± 5.5 27 ± 5 29 ± 5.5  < 0.01
 Saudi 139 (63.2) 57 (70) 82 (59) 0.13
 Non-Saudi 81 (36.8) 25 (30) 56 (41)
Medical History of Patients
 Obesity 69 (33.2) 21 (28) 48 (36) 0.20
 Type 2 Diabetes 102 (49.0) 14 (18) 88 (68)  < 0.01
 Hypertension 53 (24.1) 5 (6) 48 (35)  < 0.01
 Cancer 4 (1.8) 4 (5) 0 (0) 0.06
 Rheumatoid Arthritis 5 (2.3) 2 (2) 3 (2) 0.90
 Chronic Liver Disease 1 (0.5) 0 (0) 1 (1) 0.72
 Thyroid Disease 5 (2.3) 2 (2) 3 (2) 0.90
 Epilepsy 2 (0.9) 0 2 (1) 0.48
 Chronic Immobilization 1 (0.5) 0 1 (1) 0.72
 Asthma 10 (4.5) 1 (1) 9 (6) 0.10
 Hyperlipidemia 14 (6.4) 0 14 (10) 0.04
 Heart Disease 10 (4.5) 0 10 (7) 0.07
 Anemia 3 (1.4) 3 (4) 0 0.10
 Chronic Kidney Disease 5 (2.3) 0 5 (4) 0.19
 Hypertriglyceridemia 66 (31.6) 18 (23) 48 (37) 0.04
 Low HDL-cholesterol 134 (64.1) 28 (35) 106 (82)  < 0.01
Supplementation
 Using Vitamin C before Pandemic 1 (0.4) 1 (1) 0 0.32
 Using Vitamin C during Pandemic 85 (38.6) 6 (7) 79 (57)  < 0.01
 Using Vitamin D before Pandemic 3 (1.4) 3 (4) 0 0.08
 Using Vitamin D during Pandemic 58 (26.4) 1 (1) 57 (41)  < 0.01
  1. Data presented as N (%).
  2. BMI: body mass index; HDL: high density lipoprotein
  3. p < 0.05 considered significant