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Table 1 Demographics and baseline laboratory characteristics of individuals used in this study

From: Prediction of steroid resistance and steroid dependence in nephrotic syndrome children

Parameters Individuals Single comparison p-value
Multiple comparison OR[95% CI]/ p-value
NS SR SS SD PSS C
Demographics n = 124 n = 53 n = 71 n = 31 n = 40 n = 55  
 Male (%) 66 (53.2%) 30 (56.6%) 36(50.7%) 14 (45.2%) 22 (55%) 31 (56.4%)  
 Female (%) 58 (46.8%) 23 (43.4%) 35 (49.3%) 17 (54.8%) 18 (45%) 24 (43.6%) 0.8263
 AOO [years] 5 ± 4.23 5.4 ± 4.85 4.71 ± 3.72 4.45 ± 3.95 4.9 ± 3.57 0.3687
Histology        0.0516
 FSGS 16 (13%) 13 (24%) 3 (4%) 3 (10%) 0 (0%) SR vs.SS: 4.6 [1.2–17.8] p = 0.0263*
 MPGN 25 (20%) 13 (24%) 12 (17%) 9 (29%) 3 (7,5%) SR vs.PSS: 12 [0.7–21.6] p = 0.093
 MCD 37 (30%) 17 (32%) 20 (28%) 10 (32%) 10 (25%) SR vs.SD: 2.7 [0.7–10.9] p = 0.1518
 NA 46 (37%) 10 (20%) 36 (51%) 9 (29%) 27 (67,5%) SD vs.PSS: 4.9 [0.2–101.7] p = 0.3095
Baseline characteristics:
 Creatinine [mg/dl] n = 111 n = 43 n = 68 n = 31 n = 37   0.0095**
  0.45 ± 0.17 0.51 ± 0.16 0.41 ± 0.17 0.44 ± 0.15 0.39 ± 0.19 SR vs.SS: p = 0.0218*
        SR vs.PSS: p = 0.0131*
        SR vs.SD: p = 0.3573
        SD vs.PSS: p = 0.6836
 Urea [mg/dl] n = 110 n = 42 n = 68 n = 31 n = 37   
  30.7 ± 16.8 33.2 ± 18.1 29.2 ± 18.8 30.3 ± 15.2 28.2 ± 16.5 0.4318
 Uric acid [mg/dl] n = 100 n = 41 n = 59 n = 25 n = 34   
  4.8 ± 1.4 4.9 ± 1.6 4.8 ± 1.3 5 ± 1.5 4.6 ± 1.2 0.7795
 Cystatin C [mg/l] n = 66 n = 24 n = 42 n = 15 n = 27   
  1 (0.3) 1.1 (0.4) 0.9 (0.3) 1.0 (0.3) 0.9 (0.3) 0.0631
 eGFR [ml/min/1,73m3] n = 111 n = 44 n = 67 n = 29 n = 38   0.0009***
  116.5 ± 46.6 101.3 ± 26.5 126.5 ± 54 116.4 ± 62.5 134.2 ± 45.7 SR vs.SS: p = 0.0141*
        SR vs.PSS: p = 0.0014**
        SR vs.SD: p = 0.5236
        SD vs.PSS: p = 0.0141*
  1. Demographic data was analyzed by the t-student test and the laboratory data was analyzed using ANOVA with Holm adjustment (when data was normally distributed) and Dunn method with Benjamini–Hochberg adjustment and false discovery rate procedure (when data was not normally distributed). Post-hoc analysis was evaluated when global p-value reached significance, i.e. p ≤ 0.05 and significant results are shown in bold; *p ≤ 0.05, **p ≤ 0.01, ***p ≤ 0.001
  2. NS, nephrotic syndrome; SR, steroid resistant; SS, steroid sensitive; SD, steroid dependent; PSS, primarily steroid sensitive; MCD, minimal change disease; MPGN, mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis; FSGS, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis; AOO, age of onset; NA, not available, due to the biopsy not proceeded