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Fig. 2 | Journal of Translational Medicine

Fig. 2

From: Diagnosis and treatment of type 1 diabetes at the dawn of the personalized medicine era

Fig. 2

adapted from the same publication on addition to [36]© 2015 The American Diabetes Association

Development and staging of type 1 diabetes. T1D is characterized by a gradual loss of β-cell function (black dashed-dotted line) over time. As the disease progresses, beta cell function falls below the threshold required to maintain glucose control creating a requirement for insulin replacement therapy. Genetic and environmental risk are both included in the disease etiology. In stage 1, β-cell autoantibodies are persistent, but normoglycemia remains and there are no clinical symptoms. Throughout stage 2, the number of β-cell autoantibodies may induce dysglycemia but still without any diabetes symptoms. In stage 3, β-cell autoantibodies are predominant and clear symptoms of diabetes have emerged. In the white boxes are categories of biomarkers which could be leveraged to refine the staging paradigm, improve prognostic predictions, or subset individuals within a given stage of disease [38]. The specifics of these biomarkers are discussed in the text related to the relevant stage. The staging of T1D pathogenesis was proposed by Insel et al. [36] and the figure explanation was

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