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Table 2 Summary of primary/secondary outcome results

From: A systematic review of nutraceutical interventions for mitochondrial dysfunctions in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome

References (date) Primary/ Secondary outcome measures (s) Results
Castro Marrero et al. (2015) NAD + /NADH
Citrate Synthase
NAD + /NADH: significantly higher (p < 0.001)
CoQ10: significantly higher (p < 0.05)
ATP: significantly higher (p < 0.05)
Citrate Synthase: significantly higher (p < 0.05)
Lipoperoxides: significantly lower (p < 0.05)
Castro Marrero et al. (2016) FIS-40 Sleep: NS
Pain: NS
Fatigue: significantly lower (p = 0.03)
Forsyth et al. (1999) NA NA
Fukuda et al. (2016) CES-D NS. Increase in depressive symptom scores were dependent on increase in total plasma CoQ10 levels
Kaiser et al. (2015) NA NA
Menon et al. (2017) Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI)
Patient Global Impression Measures (PGI)
Insomnia Severity Index (ISI)
CGI: Significantly improved (p = 0.014)
ISI: Significantly improved (p = 0.017)
Montoya et al. (2018) VAS for fatigue
Concentration disturbance symptoms
VAS for fatigue: NS
Concentration disturbance symptoms: NS
Ostojic et al. (2016) Muscular Creatine Levels
Muscular Strength and Aerobic Power
Muscular creatine levels: Significantly higher (p < 0.01)
Muscular Strength and Aerobic Power: (p < 0.05)
Vermeulen et al. (2004) Stroop attention concentration test
McGill Pain Questionnaire
Stroop attention concentration test
ALC: p < 0.001
PLC: p = 0.011
ALC + PLC: p = 0.004
McGill Pain Questionnaire
PLC: p = NS
  1. ALC, Acetyl-l-Carnitine; ATP, Adenosine Triphosphate; CES-D, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression CGI, Clinical Global Impression Scale; CoQ10, Coenzyme Q10; FIS-40, Fatigue Impact Scale; ISI, Insomnia Severity Index; NAD, Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide; NADH, Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Hydrogen; NA, Not Applicable; PGI, Patient Global Impression Measures; PLC, Propionyl-l-Carnitine; NS, Non-significant; VAS, Visual Analogue Scale