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Table 1 General characteristics and laboratory parameters of the training cohort (n = 198) and validation cohort (n = 459)

From: Development and validation of a prognostic COVID-19 severity assessment (COSA) score and machine learning models for patient triage at a tertiary hospital

  Training cohort (N = 198) Validation cohort (N = 459)
Severe (N = 63) Non-severe (N = 135) P value Severe (N = 105) Non-severe (N = 354) P value
Demographics
 Age (years)
  Median (IQR) 65.0 (53.5, 79.5) 54.0 (36.0, 71.5)  < 0.002a 69.0 (61.0, 79.0) 62.0 (46.0, 75.0)  < 0.002a
 Sex
  Female, n (%) 11 (17.46%) 69 (51.11%)  < 0.002b 33 (31.43%) 150 (42.49%) 0.055b
 Hospitalization
  Inpatients, n (%) 61 (96.83%) 84 (62.22%)  < 0.002b 102 (97.14%) 216 (61.19%)  < 0.002b
 Deaths
  Deceased, n (%) 25 (39.68%) 0 (0.00%)  < 0.002b 33 (31.43%) 0 (0.00%)  < 0.002b
 Weight (kg)
  Median (IQR) 83.00 (70.40, 97.00) 75.65 (62.00, 87.00) 0.241a 80.60 (70.00, 90.15) 77.20 (65.70, 87.00) 0.989a
 Height (cm)
  Median (IQR) 172.00 (165.00, 178.25) 170.00 (163.00, 177.00) 0.012a 170.00 (165.00, 176.00) 170.00 (164.00, 176.00) 0.037a
 Body Mass Index (BMI, kg/m2)
  Median (IQR) 27.62 (24.80, 31.57) 25.82 (22.52, 28.95) 0.018a 28.10 (24.95, 32.62) 26.23 (23.62, 29.59)  < 0.002a
Laboratory parameters
 Maximal CRP levels
  Median (IQR) 176.00 (92.75, 279.75) 22.00 (6.00, 67.00)  < 0.002a 146.00 (72.75, 228.25) 35.00 (8.00, 89.00)  < 0.002a
 Maximal sodium levels
  Median (IQR) 142.00 (139.50, 146.00) 139.00 (136.00, 141.00)  < 0.002a 142.00 (139.00, 145.00) 139.00 (137.00, 141.00)  < 0.002a
 Minimal hemoglobin levels
  Median (IQR) 96.00 (78.25, 115.00) 132.00 (119.00, 141.00)  < 0.002a 110.00 (86.00, 122.00) 128.00 (116.00, 141.00)  < 0.002a
 Minimal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) values
  Median (IQR) 53.00 (25.00, 85.50) 87.00 (72.00, 104.00)  < 0.002a 62.50 (32.50, 81.00) 82.00 (59.00, 98.00)  < 0.002a
 Maximal glucose values
  Median (IQR) 10.10 (8.00, 12.75) 6.10 (5.48, 7.62)  < 0.002a 10.70 (8.30, 13.50) 6.42 (5.60, 8.20)  < 0.002a
 Maximal leukocytes values
  Median (IQR) 10.60 (7.83, 17.55) 5.92 (4.70, 7.77)  < 0.002a 12.30 (8.95, 16.00) 6.73 (4.97, 8.78)  < 0.002a
Comorbidities
 Substance use
  Smoker, n (%) 11 (17.46%) 16 (11.85%) 0.400b
  Alcohol, n (%) 5 (7.94%) 11 (8.15%) 1b
 Cardiovascular disorders
  Cardiovascular disorders, overall, n (%) 47 (74.60%) 56 (41.48%)  < 0.002b
  Arterial hypertension, n (%) 35 (55.56%) 43 (31.85%) 0.003b
  Coronary heart disease, n (%) 13 (20.63%) 6 (4.44%)  < 0.002b
  Congestive heart failure and cardiomyopathy, n (%) 16 (25.40%) 14 (10.37%) 0.011b
  Stroke, n (%) 8 (12.70%) 11 (8.15%) 0.451b
  Other, n (%) 16 (25.40%) 24 (17.78%) 0.292b
 Pulmonary disorders
  Pulmonary disorders, overall, n (%) 18 (28.57%) 35 (25.93%) 0.826b
  Asthma, n (%) 4 (6.35%) 15 (11.11%) 0.423b
  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), n (%) 6 (9.52%) 5 (3.70%) 0.183b
 Other, n (%) 10 (15.87%) 19 (14.07%) 0.906b
 Other disorders
  Type II diabetes (incl. prediabetes), n (%) 22 (34.92%) 20 (14.81%) 0.002b
  Cancer, n (%) 6 (9.52%) 16 (11.85%) 0.808b
  1. Laboratory values were considered from 3 day prior to until 1 day after the first positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test result; italic numbers indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) between severe and non-severe cases.
  2. IQR interquartile range
  3. aWilcoxon rank sum test
  4. bChi Square test