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Table 2 Principal component analysis (PCA) factor pattern correlation (LYMPHONIE study, 2018-2020)

From: The dysregulated innate immune response in severe COVID-19 pneumonia that could drive poorer outcome

Factor Pattern Factor1 Factor2 Factor3 Factor4
Clinical features and outcomes
 Body mass index 0.319
 Pneumonia Severity Index 0.393
 SOFA score 0.571 0.382
 ICU length of stay 0.333 0.686
 Mechanical ventilation duration 0.331 0.70
 Hospital length of stay −0.303 0.344 0.585
Biological findings and immune cells 
 PaO2:FiO2
 Lactate level 0.675
 C-reactive protein 0.506 −0.302
 Procalcitonin 0.579 0.375 −0.442
 Serum Creatinine 0.623 0.318 −0.344
 NT-ProBNP 0.596
 Leukocytes −0.644
 Neutrophils −0.622
 Monocytes −0.472 −0.322 −0.317
 Lymphocytes −0.567
 CD3 + T Lymphocytes −0.587
 CD4 +/CD8 + T Lymphocytes
 NK cells
Cytokine plasma concentrations 
 sCD40-Ligand 0.525 0.472 −0.396
 FLT3L 0.699 0.466
 CX3CL1 0.732
 G-CSF 0.553 0.316
 GM-CSF 0.615 0.501
 Granzyme B 0.618 0.478
 CXCL1 0.534
 CXCL2 0.432
 INF-α 0.300 0.328 0.308
 IL1-α 0.347 0.453 −0.561
 IL1-ß 0.672 0.492
 IL1-RA 0.628 0.343
 IL-2 0.648 0.344
 IL-6 0.588 0.552
 IL-7 0.419 −0.548
 IL-8 0.491 0.301
 IL-10 0.477 0.312
 IL-15 0.815
 IL-33 0.307 0.402
 CXCL10 0.635 0.35
 CCL2 0.696 0.453
 CCL3 0.589   0.406
 CCL4 0.361 0.409
 CCL20 0.737
 CCL19 0.498 0.544
 PD-L1 0.787
 CCL5 0.318 −0.582
 TGF-α 0.401 0.465 −0.467
 TNF-α 0.837
 TRAIL −0.36
Cytokine production of blood leukocytes on ex vivo stimulation
 sCD40-Ligand (WBS) −0.809 0.481
 GM-CSF (WBS) −0.65 0.45
 INF-γ (WBS) −0.426 0.309
 IL1-ß (WBS) −0.624 0.487
 IL-2 (WBS) −0.609 0.414
 IL-4 (WBS) −0.432 0.314
 IL-5 (WBS) −0.414 0.340  
 IL-6 (WBS) −0.671 0.565  
 IL-10 (WBS) −0.499 0.347  
 IL-12 (WBS) −0.772 0.474  
 IL-13 (WBS) −0.686 0.414  
 IL-15 (WBS) −0.824 0.399  
 IL-17A (WBS) −0.472 0.349  
 IL-33 (WBS) −0.805 0.485  
 TNF-α (WBS) −0.617 0.471  
  1. The table shows results of principal component analysis (PCA) including 64 variables (clinical characteristics and outcomes (n = 6), biological findings (n = 13), plasma cytokines (n = 30), cytokine production upon ex vivo stimulation (n = 15)). For clarity, we present only results for magnitude of the loading of at least 0.3
  2. SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, PaO2:FiO2 arterial pressure of oxygen/oxygen inspiratory fraction, ICU intensive care unit, NT-proBNP N-Terminal Fragment of the Prohormone Brain-Type Natriuretic Peptide, NK Natural killer, WBS whole blood stimulation