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Table 5 Results of subgroup analyses for the effects of childhood obesity policies on childhood BMI-Zscore

From: The effectiveness of pediatric obesity prevention policies: a comprehensive systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials

Group No. of trial WMD (95% CI) P Pheterogeneity I2, %
Total 45 − 0.02 − 0.061 0.021 0.34 < 0.001 99.8
Setting        
 School 14 − 0.073 − 0.137 − 0.01 0.024 < 0.001 69.4
 Community, school, home 7 − 0.08 − 0.202 0.043 0.203 0.773 0
 Community, school 13 0.057 − 0.012 0.125 0.105 < 0.001 76.5
 School–home   
 Community, home 3 − 0.127 − 0.263 0.01 0.068 0.511 0
 Community 8 − 0.052 − 0.14 0.036 0.245 < 0.001 100
Target group        
 Children 34 − 0.028 − 0.074 0.018 0.23 < 0.001 99.8
 Parent 1 − 0.18 − 0.345 − 0.015 0.032   
 Children and parents 6 0.034 − 0.023 0.091 0.242 0.891 0
 Children and parents and teachers 4 0.03 − 0.135 0.196 0.719 0.058 59.9
Continent        
 USA 17 − 0.011 − 0.047 0.025 0.539 0.449 0.4
 Europe 6 0.034 − 0.056 0.123 0.46 0.102 45.6
 Oceania 21 − 0.032 − 0.09 0.025 0.27 < 0.001 99.9
 Asia 1 − 0.1 − 0.155 − 0.045 < 0.001   
Intervention contenta        
 Education only 4 0.053 − 0.149 0.254 0.609 0.007 75.4
 Education as curricula 3 0.026 − 0.138 0.19 0.753 0.015 76.4
 Education + change in school environment (such as increased PA or changes in school diet) 15 − 0.071 − 0.128 − 0.014 0.015 < 0.001 67
 Other community sections 23 − 0.006 − 0.062 0.051 0.841 < 0.001 99.9
Study focus        
 Diet + PA 44 − 0.017 − 0.059 0.024 0.415 < 0.001 99.8
 PA 1 − 0.1 − 0.155 − 0.045 < 0.001   
Age-category        
 < 5 years old 3 0.072 − 0.063 0.208 0.295 < 0.001 100
 5–10 years old 24 − 0.069 − 0.137 − 0.001 0.046 < 0.001 78.8
 ≥ 10 years old 18 0.018 − 0.032 0.067 0.483 < 0.001 67.2
By sample size        
 ≤ 1000 22 0.015 − 0.03 0.06 0.096 < 0.001 76.8
 1000–2000 12 0.015 − 0.03 0.06 0.506 0.142 31.1
 ≥ 2000 11 0.028 − 0.047 0.103 0.46 < 0.001 99.9
Frequency of intervention        
 Daily 11 − 0.029 − 0.105 0.046 0.444 0 99.9
 Weekly 18 − 0.013 − 0.068 0.042 0.643 0.002 55.7
 Monthly 2 0.067 − 0.075 0.209 0.357 0.687 0
 NRb 14 − 0.035 − 0.12 0.049 0.412 0 82.7
Duration of intervention (years)        
 ≤ 1 24 − 0.046 − 0.105 0.012 0.119 < 0.001 68.7
 1–2 10 − 0.037 − 0.147 0.072 0.506 < 0.001 86.3
 > 2 11 0.033 − 0.042 0.109 0.386 < 0.001 99.9
 > 2 1 − 0.14 − 0.277 − 0.003 0.045   
Follow up from baseline (years)        
 ≤ 1 15 − 0.03 − 0.089 0.029 0.313 0.021 47.4
 1–2 14 − 0.016 − 0.108 0.076 0.739 < 0.001 81.1
 > 2 16 − 0.02 − 0.083 0.043 0.539 < 0.001 99.9
Sex        
 Boys and girls 32 − 0.034 − 0.079 0.012 0.147 < 0.001 99.8
 Girls 7 0.011 − 0.084 0.105 0.826 0.272 20.7
 Boys 6 0.079 − 0.098 0.257 0.382 0.031 59.4
Quality rating        
 Strong 12 0.032 − 0.046 0.109 0.104 < 0.001 75.6
 Moderate 16 − 0.054 − 0.118 0.011 0.423 < 0.001 73.9
 Weak 17 − 0.024 − 0.092 0.044 0.482 < 0.001 99.9
  1. The nine studies was included as two individual studies [2,3,4, 14, 21, 23, 33,34,35], three studies as three individual studies [20, 28, 31], and one study as four individual studies [30]; the significant P-values are presented as italic numbers
  2. WMD weighted mean difference, PA physical activity
  3. aEducation, is various training that can be different based on policies, but education as curricula is a unit of instruction in schools that is done as course regularly during the school year
  4. bNot reported