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Table 4 Results of subgroup analysis for the effects of childhood obesity policies on childhood BMI

From: The effectiveness of pediatric obesity prevention policies: a comprehensive systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials

Group No. of trial WMD (95% CI) P P heterogeneity I2, %
Total 47 − 0.127 − 0.198 − 0.056 < 0.001 < 0.001 99.7
Setting        
 School 23 − 0.225 − 0.398 − 0.053 0.01 < 0.001 60.7
 Community, school, home 2 − 0.006 − 0.075 0.063 0.864 0.5 0
 Community, school 8 − 0.027 − 0.285 0.231 0.839 < 0.001 85.1
 School–home 2 − 1.098 − 1.383 − 0.814 0.155 0.878 0
 Community, home 1 − 0.46 − 1.094 0.174 < 0.001   
 Community 8 0.007 − 0.151 0.166 0.93 < 0.001 100
 Primary care clinic 1 − 0.1 − 0.165 − 0.035 0.002   
 Cyberspace 2 − 0.443 − 0.751 − 0.135 0.005 0.589 0
Target group        
 Children 38 − 0.109 − 0.19 − 0.029 0.008 < 0.001 99.8
 Parent 4 − 0.276 − 0.522 − 0.031 0.028 0.113 49.8
 Children and parents 5 − 0.112 − 0.435 0.211 0.497 0.019 66
Continent        
 USA 13 − 0.016 − 0.083 0.05 0.632 0.976 0
 Europe 6 − 0.208 − 0.656 0.24 0.364 < 0.001 90.5
 Oceania 27 − 0.109 − 0.198 − 0.02 0.017 < 0.001 99.8
 Asia 1 − 0.2 − 0.353 − 0.047 0.01   
Intervention contenta        
 Education 5 − 0.185 − 0.391 0.022 0.081 0.216 30.9
 Education as curricula   
 Education + change in school environment (such as increased PA or changes in school diet) 26 − 0.302 − 0.501 − 0.102 0.003 < 0.001 74.6
 Other community sections 16 − 0.009 − 0.105 0.088 0.862 < 0.001 99.9
Study focus        
 Diet + PA 38 − 0.14 − 0.219 − 0.061 0.001 < 0.001 99.8
 PA 9 − 0.065 − 0.216 0.086 0.397 0.132 35.7
Age-category        
 < 5 years old 6 − 0.022 − 0.158 0.114 0.751 < 0.001 100
 5–10 years old 22 − 0.3 − 0.52 − 0.08 0.008 < 0.001 87.5
 ≥ 10 years old 19 − 0.133 − 0.28 0.014 0.077 0.009 48.7
By sample size        
 ≤ 1000 28 − 0.388 − 0.632 − 0.143 0.002 < 0.001 78
 1000–2000 10 − 0.044 − 0.146 0.057 0.393 0.008 59.4
 ≥ 2000 9 0.037 − 0.08 0.154 0.531 < 0.001 100
Frequency of intervention        
 Daily 9 − 0.023 − 0.154 0.108 0.73 < 0.001 100
 Weekly 22 − 0.042 − 0.121 0.038 0.303 0.541 0
 Monthly 4 − 0.302 − 0.61 0.005 0.054 0.326 13.4
 NRb 12 − 0.127 − 0.198 − 0.056 0.002 < 0.001 90.7
Duration of intervention (years)        
 ≤ 1 25 − 0.243 − 0.388 − 0.098 0.001 < 0.001 67.5
 1–2 9 − 0.38 − 0.725 − 0.036 0.03 < 0.001 72.1
 > 2 13 − 0.006 − 0.109 0.098 0.917 < 0.001 99.9
Follow up from baseline (years)        
 ≤ 1 21 − 0.114 − 0.223 − 0.006 0.039 0.047 36.8
 1–2 10 − 0.366 − 0.697 − 0.035 0.03 < 0.001 99.9
 > 2 16 − 0.077 − 0.176 0.021 0.122 0.001 68.7
Sex        
 Boys and girls 31 − 0.111 − 0.19 − 0.033 0.005 < 0.001 99.8
 Girls 9 − 0.209 − 0.684 0.265 0.387 < 0.001 73.5
 Boys 7 0.077 − 0.04 0.195 0.197 0.96 0
Baseline BMIc        
 ≤ 18 18 − 0.142 − 0.244 − 0.041 0.006 < 0.001 99.9
 18–22 20 − 0.09 − 0.186 0.006 0.065 0.017 44.4
 22–25 7 − 0.291 − 0.568 − 0.015 0.039 0.508 0
 ≥ 25 2 − 0.1 − 1.193 0.993 0.858 1 0
Quality rating        
 Strong 13 − 0.294 − 0.531 − 0.056 0.015 < 0.001 84
 Moderate 23 − 0.17 − 0.284 − 0.056 0.899 < 0.001 71.1
 Weak 11 − 0.009 − 0.149 0.131 0.003 < 0.001 99.9
  1. The twelve studies was included as two individual studies [2,3,4, 10, 14, 15, 23, 27, 29, 33, 34, 38], one study as three individual studies [31], and one study as four individual studies [9]; the significant P-values are presented as italic numbers
  2. WMD weighted mean difference, PA physical activity
  3. aEducation, is various training that can be different based on policies, but education as curricula is a unit of instruction in schools that is done as course regularly during the school year
  4. bNot reported
  5. cBody mass index