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Table 2 The general characteristics of the studies included in the meta-analysis of the association between childhood obesity prevention policies and Body mass index (BMI) and BMI-Zscore

From: The effectiveness of pediatric obesity prevention policies: a comprehensive systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials

Setting (N of studies) First Author/Year of publish/(reference) Main focus Interventiona Study typeb Country/name of program Increase of PAc Sessiond Total sample (IN, CN) Duration (year) Range of age Follow-up (year)e Frequency of intervention Target group Quality scoref g↓ in BMI g↓ in BMI-Z
School (n = 25) Wang/2018 [22] PA 2 1 China/YOG-Obesity study NR NR 9858 (5275, 4583) 1 9–12 0h W Children 1
Leme/2018 [23] (two individual study due to follow up) Diet + PA 0 1 Brazil/H3G-Brazil NR 60 253 (412, 111) 0.5 14–18 0, 0.5 M Children and parents 3
Lubans/2016 [24] (two individual study due to follow up) Diet + PA 2 1 Australia/ATLAS 26 3 361 (181, 180) 0.66 12–14 0, 0.84 W Children 1
Hollis/2016 [25] (two individual study due to follow up) Diet + PA 2 1 Australia/PA4E1 70,156 288 1150 (645, 505) 1, 2 10–11 0 W Children 2
Smith/2014 [26] PA 2 1 Australia/ATLAS 18 1.5 361 (181, 180) 0.41 12–14 0.25 W Children 2 j
Lubans/2012 [27] Diet + PA 2 1 Australia/NEAT Girl 91.5 4.6 357 (178, 179) 1 12–14 0 W Children 1
Millar/2011 [28] Diet + PA 2 1 Australia/IYM NR NR 2054 (1276, 778) 1 12–18 1.3 D Children 1
Llargues/2011 [29] Diet + PA 2 1 US/AVall NR 288 509 (272, 237) 2 5–6 0 W Children 1 j
Salcedo Aguilar/2010 [30] (four individual study due to sex and duration) PA 2 1 New Zealand/MOVI 234,468 126 921 (375, 546) 1, 1.66 9–10 0 W Children 1 j
Neumark-Sztainer/2010 [31] (two individual study due to follow up) Diet + PA 2 1 US/New Moves 32 27.33 356 (182, 147) 0.33 14–189 0, 0.41 W Children 1 j
Group/2010 [32] Diet + PA 2 1 US/school-based program on risk factors for DM NR NR 4603 (2307, 2296) 2 11–12 0 NR Children 3 i
Dzewaltowski/2010 [33] Diet + PA 2 1 US/HOP’N 215 240 273 (148, 125) 2 9–10 0 D Children 3
Donnelly/2009 [34] PA 2 1 US/PAAC 234 NR 1527 (814, 713) 3 6–9 0 W Children 1 j
Taylor/2008 [35] (two individual study due to follow up) Diet + PA 2 2 New Zealand/APPLE NR NR 727 (381, 346) 1 6–11 0, 1.8 D Children 3 NRk
Martínez Vizcaíno /2008 [36] (two individual study due to sex) PA 2 1 Spain/Movi 108 NR 1119 (513, 579) 0.5 9–10 0 W Children 2 j
Foster/2008 [37] Diet + PA 2 1 US/SNPI NR 180 1349 (749, 600) 2 9–12 0 W Children 2 i
Community, school (n = 14) Bell/2019 [38] Diet + PA 3 1 Australia/OPAL NR NR 2353 (1208, 1145) 5 0–18 0 D Children and parents 3 j
Santiago Felipe/2018 [39] Diet + PA 3 1 Spain/TCHP NR 30 2086 (974, 112) 1.25 8–10 0 W Children and parents 3  
Novotny/2018 [40] Diet + PA 3 1 US/Children’s Healthy Living Program NR NR 1882 (952, 930) 2 2–8 0 NR Children 2 i
Adab/2018 [41] (three individual study due to follow up) Diet + PA 1 1 UK/WAVES 45 21 1392 (660, 732) 1 6–7 0.25, 1.5, 2.25 D Children 3 i
Sadeghi/2017 [42] (two individual study due to sex) Diet + PA 0 1 US/NSFS 10.4 NR 422 (271, 151) 3 3–8 1 W Children 1 i
Swinburn/2014 [43] Diet + PA 3 1 Australia/BAEW NR NR 1674 (877, 797) 3 10–12 0 D Children 1
Pettman/2014 [44] (two individual study due to age groups) Diet + PA 3 1 Australia/ewba NR NR 2631 (1300, 1331) 3 4–5, 10–12 0 NR Children 2
Kremer/2011 [45] Diet + PA 3 1 Fiji/HYHC NR NR 2968 (879, 2069) 1.75 13–18 0 NR Children 2
Fotu/2011 [46] Diet + PA 3 1 Tonga/MYP NR NR 1712 (815, 897) 2.4 11–19 0 NR Children and parents 3
Sanigorski/2008 [47] Diet + PA 3 2 Australia/BAEW NR NR 3688 (1001, 2687) 3 4–12 0 D Children 2
School, home (n = 2) Romon/2009 {48] (two individual study due to sex) Diet + PA 2 2 France/FLVS NR NR 1502 (804, 698) 12 5–12 0 NR Children 1 j
Community, school, home (n = 5) Crespo/2012 [49] (three individual study due to follow up) Diet + PA 3 1 US/APN NR 22 392 (165, 227) 1 5–7 0, 1, 2 NR Children 3 i
Gentile/2009 [50] (two individual study due to duration) Diet + PA 3 1 US/ Switch& what you Do, View, and Chew NR NR 1323 (670, 653) 6,12 6–11 0 NR Children 2 j
Community, school, home, primary care clinic (n = 12) Economos CD /2007 [51] (four individual study due to community and sex) Diet + PA 3 2 US/SUS 40 16 1178 (385, 793) 0.66 6–8 0 W Children and parents and teachers and policy makers 2 i
Wong/2016 [52] (three individual study due to follow up) Diet + PA 2 1 US/Healthy Kids Houston NR NR 877 (524, 353) 0.125, 0.25, 0.375 9–12 0, 0.125, 0.25 W Children 1
Johnson/2012 [5]) Diet + PA 3 1 Australia/BAEW NR NR 2905 (1726, 1183) 3 4–12 0 NR Children 3 NRk
de Silva-Sanigorski /2010 [54] (two individual study due to age groups) Diet + PA 3 1 Australia/Romp and Chomp NR NR 35,157 (2778, 32,379) 3 0–5 3 D Children 1 ✔ (only in 2 years old) ✔ (only in 2 years old)
Taylor/2007 [55] (two individual study due to duration) Diet + PA 3 2 New Zealand/APPLE NR NR 470 (251, 219) 1,2 5–12 0 NR Children 1
Community, home (n = 3) de Henauw/2015 [56] (two individual study due to sex) Diet + PA 3 2 8 European countries/IDEFICS NR NR 16,228 (4882, 7746) 0.58 2–9.9 1.42 NR Children and parents 1 i ✔ (in girls)
Elder /2014 [57] Diet + PA 3 1 US/MOVE NR 36.6 541 (271, 270) 2 10–14 0 W Parent 3
Primary care clinic (n = 1) Eno Persson/2018 [58] Diet + PA 0 2 Sweden/PRIMROSE NR NR 1030 (431, 599) 3.25 0.75–5 1 NR Parent 3 j
Cyberspace (n = 2) Hammersley/2019 [59] (two individual study due to follow up) Diet + PA 0 1 Australia/Time2bHealthy NR NR 86 (42, 44) 0.5 2–5 0.25, 0.5 M Parent 3 j
  1. D daily, W weekly, M monthly, NR not reported
  2. a 0: Only education, 1: education as curricula, 2: education + change in school environment (such as increased PA or changes in school diet), 3: involvement other community sections)
  3. b 1: Randomized controlled-trials(RCT), 2: Non-randomized controlled-trials
  4. c Total hours increase of PA in the duration of intervention
  5. d Educational session was held in the duration of intervention
  6. e Follow-up from end of intervention
  7. f 1: weak, 2: moderate, 3: strong, Component scores for quality rating are included in Additional file 1: Table S4
  8. g Tickets () show a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the body mass index (BMI) or BMI Zscore (BMI-Z)
  9. h Follow up 0 means: Immediately After the End of the Intervention
  10. i BMI was not as outcomes
  11. j BMI-Z was not as outcomes
  12. k BMI was among the outcomes, but no significant changes were reported