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Table 2 Cerebrovascular disease among different COVID-19 reports

From: Comparing COVID-19-linked neurological complications with other viral infections

Acute cerebrovascular disease New York USA case report (n = 5) [9] London UK case report (n = 6) [3] Philadelphia USA Case report (n = 2) [15] Wuhan China case series (n = 6) [1]
Onset age Younger than 50 years (ranged from 33 to 49); 4 of them were male Ranged from 53–85 years old; 5 of them were male Ranged from 31 and 62 years old; 1 of them were male Patients with severe infection were older (58.2 ± 15.0)and had more acute CVD
Stroke type Large-vessel ischemic stroke All had large vessel occlusion with markedly elevated D-dimer levels. 3 had multi-territory infarcts; 2 had concurrent venous thrombosi One is subarachnoid haemorrhage from a ruptured aneurysm; another is ischaemic stroke with massive haemorrhagic conversion Five patients with ischemic stroke and 1 with cerebral hemorrhage
Comorbidity One patient had history of stroke; 2 had diabetes; 1 had hyperlipidemia Majority 5/6 had multiple comorbidities including cardiopathy, hypertension, diabetes, cancer and previous stroke history No Patients with severe infection had more underlying disorders, especially hypertension, and showed fewer typical symptoms of COVID-19, such as fever and cough
Prognosis One out of five was sent to intensive care unit Two out of 6 required intensive care unit support Zero out of two required intensive care unit One out of six deceased
Potential mechanism Possible due to Coagulopathy and vascular endothelial dysfunction Coagulation activation and thrombin generation due to proinflammatory cytokines which induce endothelial and mononuclear cell activation Underlying inflammatory and hypercoagulable state may incite cerebrovascular disease without disruption of the blood–brain barrier ACE2 and immune injury may play a role