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Table 1 Demographics of Study Cohort

From: Revealing oral microbiota composition and functionality associated with heavy cigarette smoking

Characteristics Smokers Non-smokers p-value
(n = 55) (n = 50)
Age, years 30.40 (9.508, 21–62) 30.30 (11.196, 21–60) 0.961a
Mean (SD, range)
Gender (M%, F%) 92.7%, 7.3% 90.0%, 10.0% 0.618b
Ethnicity (%)
 MENA 78.20% 76.00% 0.798b
 Asians 20.00% 20.00%
 Africans 1.80% 4.00%
 BMI (Kg/m2)
 Mean, (IQR)
24.97, (21.22–28.91) 24.92, (21.99–27.52) 0.948a
 Prescribed probiotics use (yes%) 0.00% 0.00%
 Exercise (yes%) 61.10% 72.00% 0.24b
 Animal exposure (yes%) 14.50% 20.00% 0.459b
 Antibiotics use (past 3 months) (yes%) 0% 0.00%
Family history
 Cancer 12.70% 6.00% 0.241b
 HTN 41.80% 30.00% 0.208b
 Diabetes 50.90% 30.00% 0.03b
 Asthma 5.50% 2.00% 0.356b
Household Smoker (yes%) 61.80% 30.00% 0.001b
Family Smoker (yes%) 65.50% 36.00% 0.003b
Smoking Duration
Mean (SD, range)
11.80 (8.065, 5–40)   
FTND 4.82 (2.427, 1–10)   
Mean (SD, range)
Low dependence 18.2%   
Low to moderate dependence 32.7%   
Moderate dependence 32.7%   
High dependence 16.4%   
  1. aIndependent t-test
  2. bChi-squared test