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Table 1 Bounded pathophysiological ranges of key biomarkers of physiological stress in the hemorrhaging trauma patient

From: Toward a hemorrhagic trauma severity score: fusing five physiological biomarkers

Pathophysiological range
Analyte Low Normal High
Glucose Hypoglycemia
< 3.88 mM
< 70 mg/dL
Euglycemia
3.88–5.50 mM
70-99 mg/dL
Hyperglycemia
>5.50–10.00 mM
99–180 mg/dL
Lactate Hypolactatemia
<0.50 mM
Eulactatemia
0.50–2.00 mM
Hyperlactatemia
> 2.00–4.00 mM
Potassium Hypokalemia
(< 3.50 mM)
Eukalemia
3.50-5.50 mM
Hyperkalemia
(> 5.50 mM)
pH Acidosis
(< 7.35)
7.35-7.45 Alkalosis
(> 7.45)
pO2 Hypoxia
< 5.18 mM
< 100 mmHg
5.18-6.22 mM
100-120 mmHg
Hyperoxia
(> 6.22 mM)
>120 mmHg
  1. Italicized entries relate to an example implementation of the SFRP data generator, explained further in the text