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Table 1 Frequency of tumor driver gene alterations in Black/African American and White breast cancer patients

From: High expression of MKK3 is associated with worse clinical outcomes in African American breast cancer patients

  Black or African American White Oncogenic function Regulated pathways References
Mutation, %
 TP53 43 28 TSG Apoptosis, senescence, DNA repair [11]
 BRCA1 10.2 6.9 TSG DNA repair
Checkpoint control
[9]
 BRCA2 5.7 5.2 TSG DNA repair, checkpoint control [9]
 PIK3CA 20 34 OG Cell survival, proliferation [11]
 FBXW7 4.2 1.2 TSG Cell cycle, apoptosis, differentiation [12]
 CDH1 6.4 16.2 TSG Proliferation, adhesion, polarity, EMT [13]
Deletion, %
 CSMD1 14.5 8.7 TSG Proliferation, migration and invasion [12]
 RB1 8.6 4.1 TSG Cell cycle, apoptosis [12]
Amplification, %
 MYC 30.9 20.4 OG Cell growth, survival, immune response, other [12]
 CCNE1 9.2 3.6 OG Cell cycle [12]
  1. TSG tumor suppressor gene, OG oncogene, EMT epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition