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Table 5 Preliminary targeted panel—therapeutic relevance focus

From: A modular framework for the development of targeted Covid-19 blood transcript profiling panels

Module set Module ID NCBI
Entrez ID
Symbol Name Relevance Notes
A1/S1 M15.38 916 CD3E CD3e molecule Immunological Not suitable for targeting (adaptive immunity)
A1/S2 M14.49 974 CD79B CD79b molecule Immunological Not suitable for targeting (adaptive immunity)
A1/S3 M14.80 3122 HLA-DRA Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR alpha Immunological Not suitable for targeting (adaptive immunity)
A2/S1 M9.1 3002 GZMB Granzyme B Immunological Not suitable for targeting (adaptive immunity)
A2/S2 M13.13 4282 MIF Macrophage migration inhibitory factor Immunological Not suitable for targeting (adaptive immunity -presumed)
A4/S1 M16.77 3811 KIR3DL1 Killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor, three Ig domains and long cytoplasmic tail 1 Immunological Not suitable for targeting (adaptive immunity)
A5/S1 M16.95 972 CD74 CD74 molecule Immunological Not suitable for targeting (adaptive immunity)
A5/S2 M16.111 27242 TNFRSF21 TNF receptor superfamily member 21 Immunological Not suitable for targeting (adaptive immunity)
A7/S1 M15.61 23166 STAB 1 Stabilin 1 Immunological No suitable candidates identified
A8/S1 M16.30 1728 NQO1 NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 Therapeutic Vatiquinone (EPI-743) has been found to inhibit ferroptosis [30], a process associated with tissue injury [31], including in sepsis [32]
A8/S2 M16.106 57823 SLAMF7 SLAM family member 7 Immunological No suitable candidates identified
A10/S1 M15.102 246 ALOX15 Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase Immunological No suitable candidates identified
A26/S1 M12.2 729230 CCR2 C–C motif chemokine receptor 2 Therapeutic Anti-inflammatory properties have been attributed to the CCR2/CCR5 blocker Cenicriviroc [53]
A27/S1 M12.15 608 TNFRSF17 TNF receptor superfamily member 17 Immunological Not suitable for targeting (adaptive immunity)
A28/S1 M8.3 4599 MX1 MX dynamin like GTPase 1 Therapeutic Inducible by Interferon-beta treatment
A28/S2 M15.64 1230 CCR1 C–C motif chemokine receptor 1 Therapeutic Inducible by Interferon-beta treatment
A28/S3 M10.1 3433 IFIT2 Interferon induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 2 Therapeutic Inducible by Interferon-beta treatment
A31/S1 M16.64 6915 TBXA2R Thromboxane A2 receptor Therapeutic Thromboxane A2 synthase inhibitors have antiplatelet aggregation activities and anti-inflammatory activities (drugs include: Defibrotide/Seratrodast, Ozagrel)
A31/S2 M15.58 5743 PTGS2 Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 Therapeutic PTGS2 encodes COX-2. Several specific inhibitors are available which possess anti-inflammatory properties (e.g. celecoxib, rofecoxib, valdecoxib)
A33/S1 M15.104 5151 PDE8A Phosphodiesterase 8A Therapeutic PDE8A, is targeted by Pentoxifylline, a non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor that increases perfusion and may reduce risk of acute kidney injury and attenuates LPS-induced inflammation
A33/S2 M14.19 23765 IL17RA Interleukin 17 receptor A Therapeutic Brodalumab may be beneficial in reducing the viral illness exacerbation. But current recommendation is discontinuation of use in COVID 19
A34/S1 M16.109 5742 PTGS1 Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 Therapeutic Encodes for Cox-1. COX inhibitors including Aspirin, Indomethacin, Naproxen have direct antiviral properties as well as anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic properties
A35/S1 M14.7 5293 JAK2 Janus kinase 2 Therapeutic A targeted for the biologic drug Ruxolitinib. Ruxolitinib acts on cellular components of both innate and adaptive immunity inhibiting downstream cellular signaling pathways of major inflammatory mediators (e.g., IFN-alpha via JAK2, and IL-2 and IL-6 via JAK1)
A35/S2 M15.109 3570 IL6R Interleukin 6 receptor Therapeutic IL6R is a target for the biologic drug Tocilizumab. Several studies have tested this antagonist in open label single arm trials in Covid-19 patients with the intent of blocking the cytokine storm associated with Covid-19 disease [15, 16]
A36/S1 M16.34 2993 GYPA Glycophorin A (MNS blood group) Immunological Not suitable for targeting (erythropoiesis)
A37/S1 M11.3 2623 GATA1 GATA binding protein 1 Immunological Not suitable for targeting (erythropoiesis)
A38/S1 M10.4 4057 LTF Lactotransferrin Immunological No suitable candidates identified
A38/S2 M16.96 56729 RETN Resistin Immunological Not suitable for targeting (erythropoiesis)
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