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Table 2 Characteristics of the participants by monocyte level quartiles

From: The unique association between the level of peripheral blood monocytes and the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy: a cross-sectional study

CharacteristicMonocytes (× 109/L)P for trend
Quartile 1Quartile 2Quartile 3Quartile 4
(≤ 0.29)(> 0.29, ≤ 0.36)(> 0.36, ≤ 0.44)(> 0.44)
N818833772800
Age, years66.36 ± 8.0867.14 ± 8.0267.60 ± 8.5967.29 ± 8.850.014
Men, %28.138.554.065.5< 0.001
Duration of diabetes, years8 (3, 15)9 (3, 15)10 (4, 16)10 (4, 15)0.105
Current smoking, %8.611.718.631.0< 0.001
Beyond high school education, %49.353.254.452.50.172
BMI, kg/m224.43 ± 3.7824.75 ± 3.4725.24 ± 3.4725.44 ± 3.59< 0.001
FPG, mmol/L7.46 ± 2.337.76 ± 2.398.02 ± 2.568.02 ± 2.44<  0.001
HbA1c, %7.16 ± 1.257.41 ± 1.337.65 ± 1.447.70 ± 1.39< 0.001
Total cholesterol, mmol/L5.27 ± 1.265.11 ± 1.165.13 ± 1.154.99 ± 1.18< 0.001
Triglycerides, mmol/L1.39 (1.00, 1.94)1.46 (1.06, 2.18)1.66 (1.17, 2.40)1.65 (1.21, 2.32)< 0.001
HDL, mmol/L1.30 ± 0.321.23 ± 0.291.18 ± 0.281.12 ± 0.27< 0.001
LDL, mmol/L3.24 ± 0.883.16 ± 0.853.19 ± 0.813.10 ± 0.820.002
ACR, mg/g11 (7, 22)12 (7, 28)13 (7, 32)15 (8, 32)0.026
eGFR, mL/min per 1.73 m293.20 ± 15.9693.25 ± 15.1090.73 ± 16.9689.64 ± 19.08< 0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg144.01 ± 20.60145.00 ± 19.38145.39 ± 19.64144.86 ± 19.140.352
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg77.24 ± 10.0578.01 ± 10.7979.55 ± 11.1679.81 ± 11.28< 0.001
Dyslipidemia, %54.663.365.967.9< 0.001
CVD, %34.635.938.538.60.056
DKD, %20.425.928.730.6< 0.001
DR, %16.916.716.813.40.072
Insulin therapy, %13.215.820.321.5< 0.001
  1. The data are summarized as the mean ± SD for continuous variables with a normal distribution, the median (interquartile ranges) for continuous variables with a skewed distribution, or a numerical proportion for categorical variables
  2. P for trend was calculated by regression tests
  3. BMI body mass index, FPG fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, CVD cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, DKD diabetic kidney disease, DR diabetic retinopathy, ACR albumin to creatinine ratio, eGFR estimated glomerular infiltration rate