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Table 1 General characteristics of the participants by diabetic retinopathy

From: The unique association between the level of peripheral blood monocytes and the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy: a cross-sectional study

CharacteristicDR−DR+P
N2709514
Age, years67.11 ± 8.4866.96 ± 7.920.710
Men, %46.147.50.559
Duration of diabetes, years8 (3,15)10 (5,18)< 0.001
Current smoking, %17.616.40.518
Beyond high school education, %52.153.40.577
BMI, kg/m224.89 ± 3.5925.29 ± 3.630.019
FPG, mmol/L7.73 ± 2.348.25 ± 2.84< 0.001
HbA1c, %7.42 ± 1.337.78 ± 1.53< 0.001
Total cholesterol, mmol/L5.12 ± 1.195.17 ± 1.210.343
Triglycerides, mmol/L1.56 (1.11, 2.24)1.43 (1.08, 2.09)0.498
HDL, mmol/L1.21 ± 0.31.20 ± 0.290.766
LDL, mmol/L3.16 ± 0.843.22 ± 0.860.176
ACR, mg/g12.0 (7.0, 26.0)16.0 (9.0, 42.5)< 0.001
eGFR, mL/min per 1.73 m291.56 ± 16.9092.69 ± 16.760.161
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg144.11 ± 19.51148.40 ± 20.30< 0.001
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg78.63 ± 10.8878.63 ± 10.800.999
DKD, %24.734.9< 0.001
CVD, %36.141.00.035
Dyslipidemia, %62.962.80.866
Leukocyte (× 109/L)6.44 ± 1.686.38 ± 1.620.480
Lymphocytes (× 109/L)2.09 ± 0.652.09 ± 0.800.923
Neutrophils (× 109/L)3.77 ± 1.283.74 ± 1.170.608
Monocytes (× 109/L)0.38 ± 0.120.36 ± 0.110.013
insulin therapy, %15.826.6< 0.001
  1. The data are summarized as the mean ± SD for continuous variables with a distribution, the median (interquartile ranges) for continuous variables with a skewed distribution or a numerical proportion for categorical variables
  2. CVD cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, DKD diabetic kidney disease, DR diabetic retinopathy, BMI body mass index, FPG fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, ACR albumin to creatinine ratio, eGFR estimated glomerular infiltration rate