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Table 2 Epidemiological and clinical patients’ characteristics associated with post-exertional malaise severity in an adjusted model

From: Epidemiological and clinical factors associated with post-exertional malaise severity in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome

 p-valueOR [95% CI]a
Post-exertional malaise severity quartiles
 Quartile 1Reference 
 Quartile 20.25 
 Quartile 30.03 
 Quartile 40.002 
 Age at onsetb0.031.8 [1.1–3.0]
 Sex (female)0.300.7 [0.4–1.3]
 Neurosensory, perceptual and motor disturbances0.206.5 [0.4–108.6]
 Sleep disturbances0.254.7 [0.3–65.5]
 Susceptibility to viral infections0.0092.1 [1.2 –3.7]
 Respiratory manifestations0.061.7 [1.0–2.9]
 Loss of thermostatic instability0.241.6 [0.7–3.7]
  1. Multivariate analysis was performed with ordinal regression. All variables including age at disease onset, sex, and symptom clusters of ME ICC criteria [3] were included in the initial model. The initial model did not meet the validation conditions: the model significantly differed from the intercept (p = 0.04) but failed to validate the proportional odds assumption (p = 0.015). The final model was created by removing the variables one by one with a descending stepwise method until validation of both the parallel lines test (p = 0.242) and the test on -2log-likelihood ratio from the intercept (p = 0.009)
  2. aOdds Ratio with 95% Confidence interval
  3. bAge as a categorical variable with a cut-off ≥ the median age of the study population (32 years)