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Table 1 Results of in vivo studies of pre-malignant and malignant tissue

From: The clinical application of electrical impedance technology in the detection of malignant neoplasms: a systematic review

Author Country Histology of pre-/malignant tissue No. of pre-/malignant samples No. of normal (control) samples AUROC Sensitivity (%) Specificity (%) Discriminative strengtha
Tidy 2013 UK High-grade CIN 87 109 0.827 86 56 Good
Balasubramani 2009 UK High-grade CIN 85 681 0.800 79 73 Good
Brown 2000 UK High-grade CIN 126 370 0.951 92 92 Good
Abdul 2006 UK High-grade CIN 178 680 0.652 74 53 Moderate
Malvehy 2014 Multi-centre Melanoma, NMSC 320 320 NR 97 34 Moderate
Mohr 2013 Multi-centre Melanoma, NMSC 126 126 NR 98 NR Insufficient
Aberg 2011 Multi-centre Melanoma 59 59 0.850 95 49 Good
Rocha 2017 Multi-centre Melanoma 6 154 NR 100 70 Good
Murdoch 2014 UK Oral SCC 10 61 0.776 65 92 Good
Sarode 2015 India Oral SCC 50 50 NR NR NR Insufficient
  1. AUROC: area under receiver operating characteristic curve for discrimination between neoplasia and normal tissue; CIN: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; NMSC: non-melanomatous skin cancer; Melanoma refers to cutaneous melanoma in all cases. SCC: squamous cell carcinoma; NR: not reported
  2. aDiscriminative strength is a summary of the reported quantitative indices for discrimination between neoplastic and normal tissue in each study, not taking into account the number of samples. This was rated as follows: “Good”, AUROC > 0.7 or sensitivity and specificity both > 0.75 or Youden index > 0.5; “Moderate”, AUROC > 0.6 or Sensitivity > 0.7 and Youden index > 0.25; “Insufficient”, not meeting the above criteria or insufficient data. Youden index is calculated as the (sensitivity + specificity) minus 1 [11]