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Table 3 Prevalence of subgroups analyses

From: A meta-analysis on the prevalence, associated factors and diagnostic methods of mental stress induced myocardial ischemia

Subgroups No. of studies Total MSIMI Pooled prevalence(%) 95%CI Effect Model Heterogeneity Test for
overall effect
Basic characteristics
 Female 11 612 162 30 0.21, 0.39 Random Tau2 = 0.02; Chi2 = 55.51, df = 10 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 82% Z = 6.66 (P < 0.00001)
 Male 11 1519 420 31 0.22, 0.40 Random Tau2 = 0.02; Chi2 = 148.60, df = 10 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 93% Z = 7.07 (P < 0.00001)
 White 3 440 175 40 0.35, 0.44 Fix Chi2 = 1.37, df = 2 (P = 0.50); I2 = 0% Z = 17.02 (P < 0.00001)
 Other races 3 96 45 47 0.37, 0.57 Fix Chi2 = 2.94, df = 2 (P = 0.23); I2 = 32% Z = 0.54 (P = 0.59)
 Smoke+ 8 902 256 34 0.21, 0.46 Random Tau2 = 0.03; Chi2 = 103.54, df = 7 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 93% Z = 5.43 (P < 0.00001)
 Smoke− 8 676 190 31 0.20, 0.42 Random Tau2 = 0.02; Chi2 = 65.09, df = 7 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 89% Z = 5.48 (P < 0.00001)
 Hypertension+ 8 1211 355 34 0.23, 0.44 Random Tau2 = 0.02; Chi2 = 102.11, df = 7 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 93% Z = 6.25 (P < 0.00001)
 Hypertension− 8 367 91 30 0.18, 0.43 Random Tau2 = 0.03; Chi2 = 52.54, df = 7 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 87% Z = 4.72 (P < 0.00001)
 Hyperlipidemia+  8 1255 381 36 0.24, 0.47 Random Tau2 = 0.03; Chi2 = 135.94, df = 7 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 95% Z = 6.09 (P < 0.00001)
 Hyperlipidemia− 8 185 39 29 0.17, 0.40 Random Tau2 = 0.01; Chi2 = 15.92, df = 6 (P = 0.01); I2 = 62% Z = 4.86 (P < 0.00001)
 Diabetes+ 8 466 142 38 0.25, 0.52 Random Tau2 = 0.03; Chi2 = 63.60, df = 7 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 89% Z = 5.54 (P < 0.00001)
 Diabetes− 8 1112 304 31 0.20, 0.42 Random Tau2 = 0.02; Chi2 = 113.93, df = 7 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 94% Z = 5.58 (P < 0.00001)
 Depression+ 2 71 28 56 0.15, 2.08 Random Tau2 = 0.75; Chi2 = 5.93, df = 1 (P = 0.01); I2 = 83% Z = 0.87 (P = 0.39)
 Depression− 2 318 122 31 0.07, 0.54 Random Tau2 = 0.03; Chi2 = 15.40, df = 1 (P < 0.0001); I2 = 94% Z = 2.58 (P = 0.010)
 Post MI+ 5 585 189 38 0.21, 0.55 Random Tau2 = 0.03; Chi2 = 78.29, df = 4 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 95% Z = 4.43 (P < 0.00001)
 Post MI− 5 760 189 32 0.17, 0.46 Random Tau2 = 0.02; Chi2 = 62.36, df = 4 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 94% Z = 4.36 (P < 0.0001)
 PTCA+ 3 633 168 32 0.11, 0.53 Random Tau2 = 0.03; Chi2 = 59.22, df = 2 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 97% Z = 2.97 (P = 0.003)
 PTCA− 3 495 136 34 0.14, 0.54 Random Tau2 = 0.03; Chi2 = 37.29, df = 2 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 95% Z = 3.40 (P = 0.0007)
 CABG+ 3 432 148 37 0.21, 0.54 Random Tau2 = 0.02; Chi2 = 22.92, df = 2 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 91% Z = 4.57 (P < 0.00001)
 CABG− 3 696 156 30 0.08, 0.52 Random Tau2 = 0.04; Chi2 = 70.62, df = 2 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 97% Z = 2.67 (P = 0.008)
 Aspirin+ 5 1081 298 33 0.18, 0.48 Random Tau2 = 0.03; Chi2 = 91.34, df = 4 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 96% Z = 4.34 (P < 0.0001)
 Aspirin− 5 198 58 32 0.20, 0.45 Random Tau2 = 0.01; Chi2 = 12.74, df = 4 (P = 0.01); I2 = 69% Z = 5.08 (P < 0.00001)
 Other antiplatelets+ 3 396 117 33 0.11, 0.55 Random Tau2 = 0.04; Chi2 = 38.94, df = 2 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 95% Z = 2.96 (P = 0.003)
 Other antiplatelets− 3 732 187 32 0.12, 0.51 Random Tau2 = 0.03; Chi2 = 59.37, df = 2 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 97% Z = 3.19 (P = 0.001)
 ACEI+ 5 658 201 34 0.21, 0.47 Random Tau2 = 0.02; Chi2 = 42.57, df = 4 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 91% Z = 5.24 (P < 0.00001)
 ACEI− 5 621 155 33 0.17, 0.49 Random Tau2 = 0.03; Chi2 = 58.21, df = 4 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 93% Z = 4.03 (P < 0.0001)
 ARB+ 2 149 38 35 − 0.08, 0.78 Random Tau2 = 0.09; Chi2 = 26.62, df = 1 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 96% Z = 1.61 (P = 0.11)
 ARB− 2 818 202 29 0.04, 0.54 Random Tau2 = 0.03; Chi2 = 54.50, df = 1 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 98% Z = 2.30 (P = 0.02)
 β-block+ 6 1086 301 31 0.19, 0.42 Random Tau2 = 0.02; Chi2 = 85.31, df = 5 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 94% Z = 5.01 (P < 0.00001)
 β-block− 6 331 81 30 0.19, 0.41 Random Tau2 = 0.01; Chi2 = 20.32, df = 5 (P = 0.001); I2 = 75% Z = 5.31 (P < 0.00001)
 CCB+ 4 165 56 32 0.20, 0.43 Random Tau2 = 0.01; Chi2 = 7.26, df = 3 (P = 0.06); I2 = 59% Z = 5.49 (P < 0.00001)
 CCB− 4 509 190 34 0.21, 0.47 Random Tau2 = 0.02; Chi2 = 28.66, df = 3 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 90% Z = 5.16 (P < 0.00001)
 Statins+ 6 1236 344 31 0.19, 0.43 Random Tau2 = 0.02; Chi2 = 96.14, df = 5 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 95% Z = 5.10 (P < 0.00001)
 Statins− 6 181 38 19 0.14, 0.25 Fix Chi2 = 8.00, df = 5 (P = 0.16); I2 = 38% Z = 6.77 (P < 0.00001)
Country
 USA 16 2857 814 33 0.26, 0.40 Random Tau2 = 0.02; Chi2 = 258.05, df = 15 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 94% Z = 9.60 (P < 0.00001)
 Other countries 4 307 88 27 0.08, 0.46 Random Tau2 = 0.04; Chi2 = 54.00, df = 3 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 94% Z = 2.78 (P = 0.005)
        Test for subgroup differences: Chi2 = 0.29, df = 1 (P = 0.59), I2 = 0%
Mental stress (MS)
 Public speaking 6 1606 314 22 0.17, 0.28 Random Tau2 = 0.00; Chi2 = 34.85, df = 5 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 86% Z = 7.95 (P < 0.00001)
 Mental arithmetic 3 354 100 26 0.12, 0.40 Random Tau2 = 0.01; Chi2 = 19.63, df = 2 (P < 0.0001); I2 = 90% Z = 8.86 (P < 0.00001)
 Anger recall 2 151 52 34 0.27, 0.42 Fix Chi2 = 0.23, df = 1 (P = 0.63); I2 = 0%  
 Two MS 5 536 196 37 0.23, 0.51 Random Tau2 = 0.02; Chi2 = 50.67, df = 4 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 92% Z = 5.12 (P < 0.00001)
 Three or more than three MS 4 517 240 43 0.24, 0.61 Random Tau2 = 0.03; Chi2 = 51.27, df = 3 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 94% Z = 4.51 (P < 0.00001)
        Test for subgroup differences: Chi2 = 11.21, df = 4 (P = 0.02), I2 = 64.3%
Diagnostic techniques
 SPECT 9 1893 417 26 0.20, 0.32 Random Tau2 = 0.01; Chi2 = 70.54, df = 8 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 89% Z = 8.68 (P < 0.00001)
 RNV 2 177 49 38 − 0.01, 0.78 Random Tau2 = 0.08; Chi2 = 22.05, df = 1 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 95% Z = 1.90 (P = 0.06)
 ECG 2 146 24 16 0.10, 0.22 Fix Chi2 = 1.03, df = 1 (P = 0.31); I2 = 3% Z = 5.33 (P < 0.00001)
 Echocardiography 3 468 198 41 0.21, 0.61 Random Tau2 = 0.03; Chi2 = 37.63, df = 2 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 95% Z = 3.97 (P < 0.0001)
 Two types of diagnostic technique 4 480 214 43 0.33, 0.54 Random Tau2 = 0.01; Chi2 = 16.19, df = 3 (P = 0.001); I2 = 81% Z = 8.15 (P < 0.00001)
        Test for subgroup differences: Chi2 = 23.61, df = 4 (P < 0.0001), I2 = 83.1%
Myocardial ischemia measurements
 LVEF decrease 2 220 42 19 0.14, 0.24 Fix Chi2 = 0.02, df = 1 (P = 0.90); I2 = 0% Z = 7.22 (P < 0.00001)
 WMA 3 197 99 51 0.34, 0.69 Random Tau2 = 0.02; Chi2 = 12.46, df = 2 (P = 0.002); I2 = 84% Z = 5.78 (P < 0.00001)
 ST depression 2 146 24 16 0.10, 0.22 Fix Chi2 = 1.03, df = 1 (P = 0.31); I2 = 3% Z = 5.33 (P < 0.00001)
 MPD 9 1893 417 26 0.20, 0.32 Random Tau2 = 0.01; Chi2 = 70.54, df = 8 (P < 0.00001); I2 = 89% Z = 8.68 (P < 0.00001)
 Two or more than two measurements 4 454 216 45 0.37, 0.53 Random Tau2 = 0.01; Chi2 = 13.32, df = 3 (P = 0.004); I2 = 77% Z = 11.07 (P < 0.00001)
        Test for subgroup differences: Chi2 = 47.23, df = 4 (P < 0.00001), I2 = 91.5%
  1. MSIMI mental stress induced myocardial ischemia, MI myocardial infarction, PTCA percutaneous coronary angioplasty, CABG coronary artery bypass graft, ACEI angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor block, CCB calcium-channel blocker, MS mental stress, SPECT single photon emission computed tomography, RNV radionuclide ventriculography, ECG electrocardiography, VEST ventricular function monitor, LVEF left ventricle ejection fraction, WMA wall motion abnormality, WMA wall motion abnormality, MPD myocardial perfusion defects