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Table 1 The characteristics of the articles

From: A meta-analysis on the prevalence, associated factors and diagnostic methods of mental stress induced myocardial ischemia

No. First author Publication date Country Study type (follow-up) mental stress Diagnostic technique Diagnostic criteria Sex Age (years) Total sample MSIMI Scores of Crombie/NOS Article quality
1 Akinboboye 2005 USA Cross-sectional study (No) Anger recall
Mental arithmetic
SPECT MPD Male
Female
62.82 ± 8.71a
61.63 ± 7.99b
58 17 5 Moderate
2 Babyak 2010 USA Prospective cohort study
(5.9 years)
Public speaking
Mirror trace
RNV LVEF decrease Male
Female
62.5 (55.8, 71.2)a
60.0 (51.2, 69.0)b
62.0 (55.0, 70.0)c
138 26 9 stars High
3 Burg 2009 USA Cross-sectional study (No) Ager recall SPECT MPD Male
Female
66.2 ± 9.7a
64.9 ± 6.9b
65.9 ± 8.9c
68 22 6 High
4 Carels 1999 USA Cross-sectional study (No) Mental arithmetic
Public speaking
Mirror tracing
Reading
Type A structured interview
RNV
Ambulatory ECG
WMA
ST depression
Male
Female
58.5 ± 8.4c 136 79 6 High
5 Hammadah 2017 USA Cross-sectional study (No) Public speaking SPECT MPD Male
Female
62.9 ± 9.1c 660 106 6 High
6 Hassan 2007 USA Cross-sectional study (No) Public speaking SPECT MPD Male
Female
64 ± 9c 182 38 6 High
7 Hassan 2009 USA Cross-sectional study (No) Public speaking SPECT MPD Male
Female
64 (mean)c 211 34 6 High
8 Jiang 2013 USA Cross-sectional study (No) Mental arithmetic
Mirror trace
Anger recall
Echocardiography LVEF decrease
WMA
Male
Female
63.35 ± 10.33a
63.63 ± 10.73b
63.81 ± 10.48c
307 134 6 High
9 Krantz 1991 USA Cross-sectional study (No) Mental arithmetic
Stroop color-word task
Public speaking
Reading
RNV WMA Male
Female
59.1 ± 11.3a
60.2 ± 11.4b
39 23 5 Moderate
10 Krantz 1999 USA Prospective cohort study
(3.5 years)
Mental arithmetic
Public speaking
Echocardiography RNV WMA Male
Female
58 ± 10c 79 28 5 Moderate
11 Liu 2019 China Cross-sectional study (No) Mental arithmetic Echocardiography LVEF decrease Male
Female
60.2 ± 9.7a
59.8 ± 10.2b
60.1 ± 9.8c
82 16 6 High
12 Shah 2006 USA Cross-sectional study (No) Anger recall SPECT
Echocardiography
MPD
WMA
Male
Female
67.2 (mean)a
66.0 (mean)b
83 30 6 high
13 Sheps 2002 USA Prospective cohort study
(4.3–6.0 years)
Stroop color-word task
Public speaking
RNV
ECG/Ambulatory ECG
ST depression
LVEF decrease
WMA
Male
Female
62.6 ± 8.1a
62.8 ± 9.1c
182 77 9 stars High
14 Soufer 2016 USA Cross-sectional study (No) Mental arithmetic SPECT MPD Male
Female
65.6 ± 9.0c 161 64 6 High
15 Specchia 1984 Italy Cross-sectional study (No) Mental arithmetic ECG ST depression Male
Female
50.5 ± 7c 111 20 6 High
16 Stepanovic 2012 Serbia Cross-sectional study (No) Mental arithmetic
Anger recall
Echocardiography WMA Male
Female
52 ± 8c 79 48 6 High
17 Vaccarino 2014 USA Cross-sectional study (No) Public speaking SPECT MPD Male
Female
50 (mean)c 93 36 6 High
18 Vaccarino 2018 USA Cross-sectional study (No) Public speaking SPECT MPD Male
Female
50.5 (mean)c 306 50 6 High
19 Wong 1997 Australia Cross-sectional study (No) Mental arithmetic
Stroop color-word task
Reading
Public speaking Competitivecomputer game
ECG ST depression Male
Female
61 ± 9c 35 4 5 Moderate
20 York 2007 USA Cross-sectional study (No) Public speaking SPECT MPD Male
Female
63 ± 8.58c 154 50 6 High
  1. MPD myocardial perfusion defects, WMA wall motion abnormality, LVEF left ventricle ejection fraction, RNV radionuclide ventriculography, ECG electrocardiography, MPD myocardial perfusion defects, SPECT single photon emission computed tomography
  2. aThe average age of patients without MSIMI
  3. bThea average age of patients with MSIMI
  4. cThe average age of total patients