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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of patient cohorts

From: A comparative analysis of unintegrated HIV-1 DNA measurement as a potential biomarker of the cellular reservoir in the blood of patients controlling and non-controlling viral replication

Characteristics Overall (n = 75) Off-ART (n = 12) On-ART (n = 43) Among On-ART HIC (n = 20) p value
Viremic (HIV-1 RNA > 50 cp/mL) (n = 14) Aviremic (HIV-1 RNA < 50 cp/mL) (n = 29)
Time since diagnosis (years)
NA
  0.5 [0–3] 2 [1–9]
21
1 [0–1]
7
4 [1–15]
14
> 7 0.0043a
Time since ART initiation (months)
NA
  n/a 24 [1–75]
21
1 [0.5–1]
7
36 [5–156]
14
n/a 0.0030a
CD4+ count (cells/µL) 460 [295–751] 373 [318–491] 325 [272–535] 285 [185–416] 360 [293–679] 761 [603–1047] < 0.0001
HIV-1 RNA (copies/mL of plasma) 50 [26–103] 105 [105–7.75*105] 50 [18–110] 103 [108–103] 50 [4–50] 172 [20–1214] < 0.0001
Total HIV DNA
 (copies/µg DNA) 20 [8–38] 33 [26–43] 21 [16–40] 22 [13–56] 21 [16–40] 8 [3–13] < 0.0001
 (copies/104 CD4+) 17 [7–35] 27 [19–36] 26 [11–48] 16 [9–55] 27[13–49] 5 [2–8] < 0.0001
uDNA
 (copies/µg DNA) 4 [1–11] 11 [7–14] 7 [3–13] 11 [5–17] 5 [2–11] 1 [1–2] < 0.0001
 (copies/104 CD4+) 5 [1–10] 8 [5–11] 6 [2–13] 9 [5–16] 5 [1–12] 1 [1] < 0.0001
2-LTR circles
 (copies/µg DNA) 1 [1–2] 1 [1–5] 1 [1–3] 1 [1–2] 1 [1–4] 1 [1–2] 0.7171
 (copies/104 CD4+) 1 [1–2] 1 [1–5] 1 [1–3] 1 [1–2] 1 [1–5] 1 [1] 0.2174
Percentage of uDNA among total HIV DNA 26 [5–42] 37 [28–41] 30 [13–46] 45 [22–80] 22 [5–38] 0 [0–23] 0.0013
 Mean ± SEM 28 ± 3 33 ± 3 32 ± 4 49 ± 9 24 ± 4 15 ± 5  
Percentage of 2-LTR circles among total HIV DNA 0 [0–18] 0 [0–17] 0 [0–18] 0 [0–16] 0 [0–18] 0 [0–18] 0.8684
 Mean ± SEM 10 ± 2 6 ± 3 11 ± 3 14 ± 8 9 ± 2 11 ± 4
Percentage of 2-LTR circles among uDNA 0 [0–82] 0 [0–45] 0 [0–76] 0 [0–43] 62 [0–92] 84 [68–92] 0.0024
 Mean ± SEM 38 ± 6 17 ± 9 36 ± 7 17 ± 8 47 ± 10 75 ± 10
Percentage of iDNA among total HIV DNA
 Using U-assay 75 [59–96] 63 [59–72] 70 [54–87] 56 [21–78] 78 [63–96] 100 [77–100] 0.0013
  Mean ± SEM 72 ± 3 67 ± 3 68 ± 4 51 ± 9 76 ± 4 85 ± 5
 Using 2-LTR assay 100 [82–100] 100 [83–10] 100 [82–100] 100 [84–100] 100 [82–100] 100 [82–100] 0.8684
  Mean ± SEM 90 ± 2 94 ± 3 89 ± 3 86 ± 8 91 ± 2 90 ± 4
p valueb < 0.0001 0.0025 < 0.0001 0.0005 0.0004 0.0138  
  1. NA data not available, n/a not applicable
  2. The most common ART regimen was a combination of 2NRTIs + PI (41%); 10 subjects were on an INI-based regimen (CD4+ count, HIV-1 RNA, Total HIV DNA, uDNA, 2-LTR circles vs other regimens: p ≥ 0.1323)
  3. Data are medians [25th–75th percentile], unless otherwise indicated. The Kruskal–Wallis test or a Mann–Whitney test between viremic and aviremic On-ART patients
  4. The contribution of integrated HIV DNA (iDNA) to total HIV DNA was calculated by the difference in the percentage between total (100%) and uDNA or 2-LTR circles among total HIV DNA, b Wilcoxon signed rank test