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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants in 2006 and outcome indictors in 2016 according to SBP trajectory groups

From: Unstably controlled systolic blood pressure trajectories are associated with markers for kidney damage in prediabetic population: results from the INDEED cohort study

 Group 1Group 2Group 3Group 4Group 5P value
Baseline variables: demographic and clinical characteristics
 N (%)726 (50.03%)323 (22.26%)176 (12.13%)181 (12.48%)45 (3.10%)
 Age, years51.3 ± 8.647.3 ± 8.855.1 ± 7.154.2 ± 8.657.0 ± 6.8< 0.001
 Women,  %122 (16.80)75 (23.22)28 (15.91)33 (18.23)7 (15.56)0.12
Smoking, (%)
 Never422 (58.13)179 (55.42)105 (59.66)108 (59.67)26 (57.78)0.99
 Former/quit60 (8.26)32 (9.91)15 (8.52)12 (6.63)4 (8.89)
 Often244 (33.61)112 (34.67)56 (31.82)61 (33.70)15 (33.33)
Alcohol intake, (%)
 Never391 (53.86)160 (49.54)96 (54.55)102 (56.36)28 (62.22)0.01
 Former/quit150 (20.66)105 (32.50)38 (21.59)34 (18.78)7 (15.56)
 Often185 (25.48)58 (17.96)42 (23.86)45 (24.86)10 (22.22)
Physical exercise, (%)
 Never50 (6.90)40 (12.38)12 (6.82)16 (8.84)7 (15.56)0.003
 Occasionally539 (74.34)246 (76.16)127 (72.16)127 (70.17)34 (75.56)
 Often136 (18.76)37 (11.46)37 (21.02)38 (20.99)4 (8.89)
Education level, (%)
 Illiteracy/primary56 (7.71)14 (4.33)26 (14.77)23 (12.70)5 (11.11)< 0.001
 Middle school633 (86.59)239 (73.99)145 (82.38)153 (84.53)39 (86.67)
 College/university37 (5.1)29 (8.98)5 (2.84)5 (2.76)1 (2.22)
 Antihypertensive agents,  %69 (9.5)8 (2.48)39 (22.16)68 (37.57)17 (37.78)< 0.001
 Lipid-lowering drugs,  %60 (8.27)23 (7.12)20 (11.37)22 (12.15)3 (6.67)0.42
 BMI, kg/m226.9 ± 3.325.9 ± 3.427.2 ± 3.127.4 ± 3.327.4 ± 3.9< 0.001
Baseline variables: biochemical data
 hsCRP, mg/L1.0 (0.4, 2.4)0.9 (0.4, 2.1)1.1 (0.5, 2.6)1.4 (0.6, 2.8)1.0 (0.4, 3.0)0.008
 TCHO, mmol/L5.1 (4.5, 5.8)5.1 (4.4, 5.7)5.2 (4.5, 5.8)5.4 (4.6, 6.0)5.0 (4.7, 5.8)0.088
 Triglyceride, mmol/L1.7 (1.1, 2.5)1.6 (1.0, 2.4)1.7 (1.2, 2.5)1.9 (1.3, 1.8)1.6 (1.2, 2.5)0.007
HDL, mmol/L1.5 ± 0.41.5 ± 0.41.6 ± 0.41.5 ± 0.41.6 ± 0.40.023
 LDL, mmol/L2.4 (1.8, 2.8)2.4 (1.9, 2.8)2.5 (1.9, 3.0)2.3 (1.8, 3.1)2.3 (2.0, 2.7)0.44
 FBG, mmol/L6.2 (5.9, 6.5)6.1 (5.8, 6.5)6.1 (5.8, 6.4)6.1 (5.8, 6.5)6.1 (5.8, 6.4)0.051
 Hemoglobin, mmol/L9.4 (8.8, 10.1)9.3 (8.8, 9.9)9.4 (8.8, 9.9)9.4 (8.9, 10.0)9.4 (8.9, 9.9)0.21
 DBP, mmHg85.7 ± 9.277.3 ± 8.091.7 ± 9.397.9 ± 11.999 ± 11.1< 0.001
 SBP, mmHg132.6 ± 12.7115.4 ± 10.8146.4 ± 14.5159.3 ± 13.7170.9 ± 19.8< 0.001
Outcome variables
 eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m2100.5 ± 12.8103.3 ± 13.694.4 ± 13.495.7 ± 14.689.4 ± 14.3< 0.001
 uACR, mg/mmol1.6 (0.8, 3.5)1.2 (0.7, 2.3)1.9 (0.9, 5.7)2.1 (1.1, 5.3)2.9 (1.4, 8.1)< 0.001
 Orm, mg/L8.4 (3.6, 20.8)6.1 (2.8, 15.5)10.3 (3.9, 27.8)8.5 (4.1, 24.9)14.7 (5.6, 44.3)< 0.001
 α1MG, mg/L16.6 (7.5, 30.0)13.7 (6.0, 25.7)16.0 (7.4, 32.8)16.6 (7.9, 30.8)26.8 (14.2, 39.8)0.002
 TRF, mg/L2.2 (2.2, 3.3)2.2 (2.2, 2.3)2.2 (2.2, 6.0)2.2 (2.2, 6.2)3.7 (2.2, 10.4)< 0.001
  1. Group 1: moderate-stable group; group 2: low-stable group; group 3: moderate-increasing group; group 4: moderate-decreasing group; group 5: high-stable group
  2. BMI body mass index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, hsCRP high sensitivity C reactive protein, FBG fasting blood glucose, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, TCHO total cholesterol, DBP diastolic blood pressure, SBP systolic blood pressure, α1MG Urinary α1-microglobulin, TRF Transferrinuria, Orm Urinary α1-acid glycoprotein, uACR urinary albumin creatinine ratio
  3. [Missing Value]: Physical activity 1; BMI: 3; Hemoglobin: 3; Diastolic blood pressure (DBP): 1; hsCRP: 1; Orm: 7; α1MG: 5; TRF: 6