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Table 4 Study results for urinary metabolite analyses

From: A systematic review of metabolomic dysregulation in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease (CFS/ME/SEID)

AuthorNumber of metabolitesUrinary metabolite
AssessedSignificantly different in CFS/ME/SEID vs HCDecreased in CFS/ME/SEID vs HC (p-value)Increased in CFS/ME/SEID vs HC (p-value)
Armstrong et al. [26]305Acetate (0.003)
Alanine (0.049)
Formate (0.002)
Pyruvate (0.034)
Serine (0.034)
None
Jones et al. [27]266Beta-alanine (< 0.05)
Hydroxyproline (< 0.001)
Histidine (< 0.05)
Methionine (< 0.01)
Cystine (< 0.01)
Phenylalanine (< 0.01)
None
McGregor et al. [28]288CFSUM2 (< 0.001)
Alanine (< 0.005)
Glutamic acid (< 0.02)
Aminohydroxy-N-methylpyrrolidine (< 0.001)
Tyrosine (0.02)
Beta-Alanine (< 0.02)
Succinic acid (< 0.05)
Aconitic acid (< 0.05)