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Table 1 Summary of studies meeting inclusion criteria

From: A systematic review of metabolomic dysregulation in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease (CFS/ME/SEID)

AuthorYearCountryStudy designCFS/ME/SEID diagnostic criteriaMetaboliteSample size
SampleTargeted/untargetedAnalysis methodCFS/ME/SEIDHC
Germain et al.2020 [21]USACase controlFukudaPlasmaUntargetedMetabolon mass spectrometry26 F26F
Germain et al.2018 [22]USACase controlFukudaPlasmaUntargetedMetabolon mass spectrometry32 F19 F
Nagy-Szakal et al.2018 [29]USACase controlFukuda
PlasmaTargeted and untargetedGas chromatography time-of-flight and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry2649
Germain et al.2017 [23]USACase controlFukudaPlasmaUntargetedQ-exactive mass spectrometry17 F15 F
Yamano et al.2016 [24]JapanCase controlFukudaPlasmaUntargetedCapillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry41 F
5 M
41 F
6 M
Fluge et al.2016 [25]NorwayCase controlCCCSerumTargetedGas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry162 F
38 M
67 F
35 M
Naviaux et al.2016 [30]USACase controlFukuda
PlasmaTargetedTriple quadrupole mass spectrometry23 F
22 M
21 F
18 M
Armstrong et al.2015 [26]AustraliaCase controlCCCSerum
UntargetedNuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry34 F25 F
Armstrong et al.2012 [18]AustraliaCase controlCCCSerumUntargetedNuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry6 F
5 M
5 F
5 M
Jones et al.2005 [27]United KingdomCase controlFukuda
TargetedReversed phase chromatography19 F
11 M
19 F
11 M
McGregor et al.1996 [28]AustraliaCase controlFukuda
UrineUntargetedCapillary gas chromatography–mass spectrometry16 F
4 M
32 F
13 M
  1. F female, M male