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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Effects of dietary methionine and cysteine restriction on plasma biomarkers, serum fibroblast growth factor 21, and adipose tissue gene expression in women with overweight or obesity: a double-blind randomized controlled pilot study

Characteristics Met/Cys-low Met/Cys-medium Met/Cys-high
(n = 7) (n = 7) (n = 6)
Age, y 29.5 (24.9, 40.9) 30.9 (23, 39) 34.5 (23.7, 39.7)
Body weight (kg) 83.2 (76, 108) 81.8 (73, 97) 78.3 (68.4, 83.3)
BMI (kg/m2) 29.7 (25.5, 34.7) 29.4 (24.7, 32.9) 27.3 (24.4, 33.8)
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 0.9 (0.6, 1.1) 0.8 (0.5, 2) 1.45 (0.7, 2.1)
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.9 (3.7, 4.6) 4.4 (4, 6) 4.55 (3.6, 6.3)
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.4 (1.7, 3.2) 2.8 (2.6, 4.5) 2.65 (2, 4.9)
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.4 (0.9, 2.1) 1.4 (0.8, 1.9) 1.5 (1.1, 1.9)
Apolipoprotein B (g/L) 0.8 (0.6, 1) 0.8 (0.7, 1.2) 0.8 (0.6, 1.4)
Apolipoprotein A1 (g/L) 1.4 (1, 2.1) 1.4 (1, 1.7) 1.5 (1.2, 1.9)
Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 5 (4.6, 5.8) 5 (4.5, 5.3) 5.15 (4.1, 5.6)
Fasting insulin (pmol/L) 54 (30, 162) 44 (32, 62) 54.5 (21, 60)
Fasting C-peptide (pmol/L) 563 (385, 1220) 614 (481, 740) 614 (458, 832)
HOMA-IRa 2.08 (1.2, 6) 1.63 (1.07, 2.25) 1.94 (0.78, 2.31)
FGF21 (pg/mL) 95.9 (37.8, 312) 98.0 (67.3, 232) 75.0 (5.0, 291)
Amino acids (μmol/L)
Methionine 19.9 (18.2, 25.5) 21.4 (19.5, 24.4) 22.3 (19.2, 26.4)
SAM 101 (69.9, 114) 94.9 (84.5, 109) 103 (89, 129)
SAH 24.7 (17.3, 29.7) 24.7 (20.4, 28.1) 25.8 (22.8, 35.3)
Total homocysteine 8.86 (6.56, 9.68) 9.99 (5.03, 14.8) 7.04 (4.66, 11.2)
Free homocysteine 1.23 (0.814, 2.09) 1.84 (0.942, 2.9) 1.26 (0.79, 2.32)
Free reduced homocysteine 0.17 (0.14, 0.48) 0.38 (0.17, 0.42) 0.18 (0.17, 0.26)
Homocystine 0.02 (0.02, 0.03) 0.03 (0.01, 0.06) 0.02 (0.01, 0.03)
Protein-bound homocysteine 7.47 (5.58, 8.22) 8.17 (4.08, 11.9) 5.85 (3.87, 8.87)
Cystathionine 1.6 (0.80, 2.91) 1.32 (0.69, 2.32) 1 (0.65, 3.48)
Total cysteine 310 (288, 322) 286 (248, 331) 291 (261, 324)
Free cysteine 152 (119, 178) 161 (146, 176) 169 (140, 179)
Free reduced cysteine 18 (11.4, 26.8) 20.2 (14.4, 26.9) 19.2 (11.9, 24.5)
Cystine 44.8 (41, 49.6) 41.9 (41.3, 47.8) 44.5 (42.5, 47.2)
Protein-bound cysteine 149 (134, 189) 123 (99.5, 170) 139 (82, 150)
Total GSH 7.69 (5.66, 7.99) 7.97 (4.46, 10.9) 8.25 (5.43, 13.5)
Free GSH 3.59 (2.39, 6.13) 4.29 (2.49, 6.89) 6.66 (4.1, 10.6)
GSH 4.88 (3.37, 5.85) 5.26 (5.05, 6.21) 6.5 (4.66, 6.91)
GSSG 0.06 (0.03, 0.09) 0.05 (0.02, 0.10) 0.09 (0.05, 0.15)
Protein-bound GSH 3.14 (1.16, 4.58) 2.89 (1.98, 4.69) 2.1 (0.27, 6.01)
Taurine 95.4 (55.3, 126) 98.7 (66.1, 112) 101 (51.1, 136)
  1. Values are given as median (range)
  2. FGF21, fibroblast growth factor 21; Met/Cys, methionine and cysteine; SAM, S-adenosylmethionine; SAH, S-adenosylhomocysteine; GSH, glutathione
  3. aHOMA-IR was calculated by (insulin/6) × (glucose × 18)/405