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Table 2 Methods for regeneration of skin appendages and nerves

From: Regeneration of skin appendages and nerves: current status and further challenges

 Scaffolding/materialsCellsResultsReferences
Hair folliclesIntegra dermal substitute (type I Collagen)Epidermal and dermal cells from neonatal ratsHairs can be seen as early as 11–15 days postgraft; high reproducibility of hair formation; hair filament shows a normal appearance[55]
MatrigelHuman-derived outer sheath keratinocyte and dermal papilla cellsForm a tube-like structure; develop into epidermal cyst-like cell spheres; cannot form intact hair follicles[56]
3D-bioprintering (type I collagen gel containing dermal fibroblasts (FBs), microfabricated plastic molds)Hair papilla cellsSimulate the three-dimensional growth environment; successfully regenerated the skin tissue containing hair follicles
Formation of microvascular vessels
[59]
Sebaceous glandsThe transplantation of the bioengineered hair folliclesEmbryonic skin-derived epithelial and mesenchymal cellsDevelop histologically correct hair follicles; sebaceous glands show positive staining with oil red O[67]
Sweat glandsScaffolding/materials-freeHeated SGCs co-cultured with BrdU/GFP-labelled MSCsThe MSCs had acquired the sweat gland cell phenotype[10]
3D-bioprintering/Matrigel basement membrane matrixSGCsSimulate the tissue structure of the sweat gland in vivo[103]
EGF-containing gelatine microspheresSGCsDevelop Sweat gland-like structures[104]
Skin nervesDermal Regeneration Template (collagen–chitosan dermal scaffold)Schwann cells, skin-derived precursor stem cells, BMSCs, iPS cellsPromote nerve growth, accelerate nerve regeneration[135,136,137,138]