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Table 1 Basic characteristics of 15 randomized controlled trials included in the meta-analysis

From: Effects of probiotics on type II diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis

Study Country No. of cases (treatment/control) Treatment group Control group Duration of treatment (week)
Razmpoosh E 2019 Iran 30/30 Lactobacillus acidophilus 2 × 109 CFU + Lactobacillus casei 7 × 109 CFU + Lactobacillus rhamnosus 1.5 × 109 CFU + Lactobacillus bulgaricus 2 × 108 CFU + Bifidobacterium breve 3 × 1010 CFU + Bifidobacterium longum 7 × 109 CFU + Streptococcus thermophilus 1.5 × 109 CFU 4 times/day Placebo 6
Raygan F 2018 Iran 30/30 Bifidobacterium bifidum 2 × 109 CFU + Lactobacillus casei 2 × 109 CFU + Lactobacillus acidophilus 2 × 109 CFU/day Placebo 12
Ejtahed HS 2012 Iran 30/30 Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 4 × 109 CFU/day Conventional yogurt 6
Shakeri H 2014 Iran 26/26 Lactobacillus sporogenes 1 × 108 CFU/1 g 40 g 3 times/day Bread without probiotic bacteria and prebiotic inulin 8
Khalili L 2019 Iran 20/20 Lactobacillus casei 1 × 108 CFU/day Placebo 8
Tajadadi-Ebrahimi M 2016 Iran 30/30 Lactobacillus acidophilus 2 × 109 + Lactobacillus casei 2 × 109 + Bifidobacterium bifidum 2 × 109 CFU/g Placebo 12
Mohamadshahi M 2014 Iran 22/22 Lactobacillus acidophilus 3.7 × 106 CFU/g and B. lactic 3.7 × 106 CFU/g 300 g/day Conventional yogurt 8
Tajadadi-Ebrahimi M 2014 Iran 27/27 Lactobacillus sporogenes 1 × 108 CFUs/g 3 times/day Control bread 8
Kobyliak N 2018 Ukraine 31/22 Lactobacillus + Lactococcus 6 × 1010 CFU/g + Bifidobacterium 1 × 1010 CFU/g + Propionibacterium 3 × 1010 CFU/g + Acetobacter 1 × 106 CFU/g 10 g/day Placebo 8
Mobini R 2016 Swedish 14/15 Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 1 × 1010 CFU/day Placebo 12
Firouzi S 2017 Malaysia 48/53 Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus lactis 5 × 109 CFU + Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus lactis 5 × 109 CFU 2 times/day Placebo 12
Tonucci LB 2017 Brazil 23/22 Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 1 × 109 CFU/day + Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 1 × 109 CFU/day Conventional fermented milk 6
Hui Y 2018 China 53/55 Lactobacillus paracasei N1115 1 × 108 CFU/mL 200 g 2 times/day Placebo 8
Asemi Z 2016 Iran 51/51 Lactobacillus sporogenes 1 × 107 CFU + 0.05 g beta-carotene 3 times/day Placebo 6
Mazloom Z 2013 Iran 16/18 Lactobacillus acidophilus + Lactobacillus bulgaricus + Lactobacillus bifidum + Lactobacillus casei Placebo 6